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Primary Eye Care and Community Participation. Dr. Saman Wimalasundera MBBS, DO, PhD Senior lecturer in community medicine & community ophthalmologist Community Ophthalmology center Department of community medicine P.O.Box 70, Galle Sri Lanka. Primary eye care and community participation.

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primary eye care and community participation

Primary Eye Care and Community Participation

Dr. Saman Wimalasundera MBBS, DO, PhD

Senior lecturer in community medicine

& community ophthalmologist

Community Ophthalmology center

Department of community medicine

P.O.Box 70,

Galle

Sri Lanka

primary eye care and community participation2
Primary eye care and community participation

Delivery of primary eye care has its specific roles and targets in the community and good community participation is an essential component in the successful prevention of blindness program.

essential components of primary eye care
Essential components of primary eye care
  • Promotive
  • Preventive
  • Curative
  • Rehabilitative
1 promotive eye care
(1) Promotive eye care

1.Creating and awareness of the blinding diseases existing in the community and the ways of preventing or curing it.

2.How to use the available recourses to overcome the problems.

2 preventive eye care
(2) Preventive eye care

1.Motivation of individuals and their

communities to participate in blindness

prevention activities.

2.Social and community development that promotes health

3.Change of behavior and environment

examples
Examples
  • Provision of adequate safe water.

construction of latrines &refuse pits

  • maintenance of environmental hygiene.
  • Consumption of food rich in vitamin A.
  • Care for individuals at risk.
slide8
Prevention of measles, malnutrition and

diarrhea in children

  • Protection of eyes against injuries.
  • Immunization (E.g. Measles)
  • Screening of antenatal mothers for sexually

transmitted diseases.

  • Family planning
3 curative activities
(3) Curative activities

1. To carry out treatment procedures for simple common diseases that lead to blindness or impaired vision if not treated

e.g. corneal ulcers, refractive errors etc.

2. First aid treatment for eye injuries.

3.Timely referral to secondary level.

4.Identification of potentially blinding disease

conditions for proper management

5.Identification of curable blinding diseases

e.g.cataract and referral for treatment

4 rehabilitative activities
(4) Rehabilitative activities

Target group: Incurably blind people

What can the primary eye care workers

do to them ?

They should be assured that they are not

completely useless

slide11
Some carefully selected appropriate training should be given to them to acquire some skills
  • Make them functional and do not allow to depend on the others totally.
development of primary eye care program
Development of primary eye care program

A good primary Eye care Program will depend on :

  • existing health care services and availability of trained health care workers (Manpower)
  • Political and professional motivation
slide13
(3) Resources for training, to conduct programs and to monitor it.
  • Supplies for primary eye care workers.
  • Funding for capital and recurrent expenditure.
  • Close liaison with secondary and tertiary centers
  • Careful Planning and evaluation
basic equipment essential for pec program
Basic equipment essential for PEC program
  • Snellens chart and pinhole
  • Hand magnifying lens
  • Good source of light (Torch with batteries)
  • Eye dressings
  • Teaching materials
different types of primary eye care programs that can be used in the community
Different Types of Primary Eye care Programs that can be used in the community
  • Depend on the need of the local community

and available resources

1. Need assessment Programs

2. Screening for blinding diseases

3. Comprehensive care Eye camps

4. Out reach Surgical Camps

5. Health Education Programs

sustainability of the pec programs
Sustainability of the PEC programs

Depend on the following areas

  • Technical sustainability :- Training of technical staff
  • Financial sustainability :- Continuous allocation of funds necessary
  • Operational sustainability :- Monitoring of the activities regularly.
ottawa charter and health promotion
Ottawa charter and health promotion

In 1986 an international conference

called Ottawa charter adopts five principal

elements that improve health promotion.

the five principals are
The Five principals are
  • Healthy public policy
  • Personnel skills development
  • Community participation
  • Healthy and supportive environment
  • Re-organization of health services

Community participation is a major

emphasis in eye health promotion.

slide20
The promotion of eye health and to

reduce the risk of blindness though

community ophthalmology needs good

community participation

community participation is influenced by
Community participation is influenced by
  • Community beliefs and perceptions
  • Motivation of people in the community
  • Awareness of the problems related to blindness
community participation can be improved by
Community participation can be improved by
  • Encouraging the people with early symptoms by their families to attend to available health services
slide23
By creating and awareness through health education programs

- Mass media programs

- Through volunteers or community health workers by small group discussions

- Through community leaders

- Self help groups

- Improving education of children through schools

community participation enhances eye health
Community participation enhances eye health
  • By attending to the community health programs for early detection
  • By following treatment procedures until full recovery
slide25
By adopting changes in life style that encourages eye health
  • By improving the living environment in the communities to reduce the risk of transmission of eye diseases
  • By creating a community demand by the people of the community to develop infra structure facilities by policy makers that improves eye care services.
slide26
There is a high demand for a

community based approach in the

prevention of blindness. That needs

proper community participation.