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Chapter 10: The Byzantine empire & Russia. Section 1: The Byzantine Empire. The growth of the Byzantine empire. Emperor Constantine rebuilds Byzantium into Constantinople (Capital) Vital Center of Empire, located on shores of Bosporus strait that linked Mediterranean and Black seas

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Chapter 10: The Byzantine empire & Russia

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    1. Chapter 10: The Byzantine empire & Russia

    2. Section 1: The Byzantine Empire

    3. The growth of the Byzantine empire • Emperor Constantine rebuilds Byzantium into Constantinople (Capital) • Vital Center of Empire, located on shores of Bosporus strait that linked Mediterranean and Black seas • Excellent harbor, commanded key trade routes linking Europe and Asia

    4. The Growth of the byzantine empire • Byzantine Empire declined to small area around Constantinople, still in existence 1000 years after fall of Rome • Blended ancient Greek, Roman, Christian influences w/ Mediterranean traditions

    5. The Age of Justinian • Ruled from 527 to 565 AD, determined to revive ancient Rome, his general reacquired Northern Africa, Italy, and Southern Spain • Hagia Sophia – church w/ arch dome, its interior – colored marble/embroidered silk curtains • Code of Law – Corpus JurisCivilis “Body of Civil Law”, laws passed by roman assemblies

    6. The Age of justinian • Autocrat – sole ruler w/ complete authority, deemed Christ’s co-ruler, combined political power + spiritual authority • 600s – 700s – Arab gained much control of Mediterranean • Healthy Economy w/ peasants as backbone of the empire

    7. Byzantine Christianity • Byzantine Empire controlled church affairs + appointed patriarch (highest church official) in Constantinople • Dispute over use of icons (holy images), outlawed in 700s • 1054 – other controversies led to the schism (permanent split) between Byzantine (Greek) church and Catholic Church

    8. Crisis and Collapse • Byzantine Empire = in decline (constant wars, court intrigues, succession struggles) • Normans conquered southern Italy & Seljuk Turks advanced over Asia Minor • 1090s – First Crusade: Byzantine asks for help from Western powers

    9. Crisis and collapse • 1204 – Attack on Constantinople (4th Crusade), crusaders burned/plundered city for 3 days • 1453 – The Fall of Constantinople • Ottoman forces surround Constantinople • Broke through after 2 months • HagiaSophia became a Islamic house of worship

    10. The Byzantine heritage • Byzantine influenced Europe (Middle Ages) • Blended Christian religious beliefs w/ Greek aspects • Also extended Roman achievements in engineering/law

    11. Section 2:the Rise of Russia

    12. The Geography of russia • Eurasian plate, reaches from Europe to borders of China • 3 broad zones w/ different climates and resources • Northern Forest • Southern fertile land (Ukraine) • Southern steppe (open treeless, grassland)

    13. Growth of Kiev • Slavs and Varangians (Vikings) made up most of Russia at the time (700-800s), Kiev = 1st center of Russian trade • 863 AD – 2 Greek monks adapted Greek alphabet to translate bible into Slavic languages (became Cyrillic alphabet) • Yaroslav the wise – 1019 – 1054: issued written law + translated Greek works to his language

    14. Mongol conquest • 1236 – 1241, grandson of Genghiz, led mongol armies into Russia (Golden Horde) • Mongols = tolerant leaders, demanded payment of heavy tribute from Russians • 1200s – Russian women = totally subject to male authority in household, Mongols also tolerated Christian Orthodox church

    15. Moscow Takes the lead • Princes of Moscow steadily increased power, became capital of Orthodox Church + political/spiritual center • 1462 – 1505: Ivan III (Ivan the Great): built framework for absolute rule, limited power of boyars (great landowning nobles) • Ivan & successors took title of czar (Caesar in Russian)

    16. Section 3: Shaping Eastern Europe

    17. The geography of Eastern europe • Reaches from Baltic Seas, across Poland, through Balkan Mtns • Most of region lies on great European plains (link up with steppes of Russia) • Main rivers flow either into Black or Baltic Seas

    18. A diverse mix of peoples • West Slavs = Poland South Slavs = Balkans • Balkans had other ethnic groups (people share same language/culture) Asians, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, Magyars, Vikings, Germans • Byzantine missionaries carried over Orthodox Christianity + other culture

    19. A diverse mix of peoples • German knights brought Western Roman Catholicism to Poland/Czech/Hungary/Western Balkans • Refuge for Jewish settlers, attacked by Western European Christians (during crusades/Black Death) • 1300s – Polish Kings followed a policy of toleration towards Jews

    20. Early Kingdoms Poland • Poland – Polish King 1st crowned 1000s, 1386 – Poland controlled largest state in Europe (Baltic to Black Sea) • Poland gradually increased power of nobles & met in a diet (assembly), “free veto” = hard for government to make decisions • Poland declined due to poor government, last glory in 1683

    21. Early kingdoms Hungary • Magyar raiders settled in Hungary (adopted Roman Catholicism, much larger than today • Golden Bull of 1222 – forced to recognize King John of England’s nobles (limited royal power) Serbia • 600s – South Slavs settled in Balkans (formed Serbia), accepted Orthodox Christianity

    22. Early kingdoms Serbia (continued) • 1100s – set up own state & reached height under Stefan Dusan (encouraged Byzantine culture) • Successors lacked political gifts, Serbia could not withstand Ottoman Turks • Serbs fought to death at battle of Kosovo (1389)

    23. The end