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Census Data for Community Research

Census Data for Community Research

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Census Data for Community Research

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  1. Census Data forCommunity Research Rural Reflections Horizons Moses Lake, Washington March 20, 2010

  2. Census Bureau Data Sources • General demographic data for community profiles – counts of population (by age, sex, race, ethnicity) and housing • Decennial Census • Population Estimates Program • Population and housing characteristics for needs assessments in grant proposals • American Community Survey • Other surveys and programs

  3. What’s Available Online www.census.gov • Census Bureau programs • Decennial Census • Population Estimates Program • American Community Survey • Economic Census / Surveys Data are available online through data access tool: American FactFinder

  4. Census Bureau Home Page http://www.census.gov Other Surveys

  5. Why Decennial Census Is Done • Political representation • Apportionment of 435 seats in the House of Representatives • December 31, 2010: State population counts to President • Redistricting • April 1, 2011: Redistricting data (population, voting age, race, ethnicity totals) by census block to governors • Distribution of Federal funding • Over $400 billion allocated per year • Planning at state and local levels

  6. Decennial Census • Taken every 10 years since 1790 • Largest domestic undertaking in U.S. • Provides official counts of population and housing down to block level • Reference date is April 1 • Same form in 2010 to every household • Participation is mandatory • Workers take lifetime confidentiality oath

  7. Census 2000 Questionnaire& Data Products • 2000 “short” form - - basic questions • Produced “100% data” or “counts” • Data released down to block level • Summary Files 1 and 2 (SF-1 and SF-2) • 2000 “long” form - - same basic questions as “short” form, plus detailed questions - - sample was 1 in 6 U.S. households • Produced “sample data” or “characteristics” • Data released down to blockgroup level • Summary Files 3 and 4 (SF-3 and SF-4)

  8. (Name) Sex Age Date of birth Ethnicity Race Relationship of people within household Rent / own house (tenure) 2010 Census QuestionnaireTopics Takes an average household ten minutes to complete 9

  9. 2010 Census Ethnicity Question

  10. 2010 Census Race Question

  11. Census Geography:Hierarchy

  12. Census Geography:Sub-County Relationships

  13. 2010 Census Data Release Schedule

  14. Population Estimates Program • Official counts in inter-censal years • Developed with assistance of states: FSCPE – Federal State Cooperative for Population Estimates • 100% data released down to place level • Uses: • Federal funding allocations • Survey controls • Denominators: vital rates / per capita time series • Reference date is July 1

  15. Population Estimates Main Page

  16. American Community Survey - ACS • Provides characteristics of population • Questions similar to 2000 “long form” • Participation is mandatory • 250,000 households in survey / month (or 3 million / year) • Covered every county in U.S. in 2005 • First data releases dependent on population thresholds • After first release, data released every year

  17. American Community Survey Social Characteristics • Education • Marital Status • Fertility • Grandparent Caregivers • Veterans • Disability Status • Place of Birth • Citizenship • Year of Entry • Language Spoken at Home • Ancestry / Tribal • Affiliation 19

  18. American Community Survey Economic Characteristics • Income • Benefits • Employment Status • Occupation • Industry • Commuting to Work • Place of Work 20

  19. American Community Survey Housing Characteristics • Tenure • Occupancy & Structure • Housing Value • Taxes & Insurance • Utilities • Mortgage/Monthly Rent 21

  20. American Community Survey Demographic Characteristics • Sex • Age • Hispanic Origin • Race 22

  21. ACS and the Decennial CensusKey Differences Residency ACS uses “two-month” rule Decennial census based on concept of “usual residence” Employment Both ACS and Decennial ask respondents if they worked for pay “last week” ACS collects data year-round and produces an average of the data collected for the period 23 23

  22. ACS and the Decennial CensusKey Differences (continued) • Income • Decennial census income data refer to the previous calendar year • ACS asks for income for the previous 12 months • School enrollment • Decennial census asks if a person attended school “any time since February 1” • ACS asks if a person attended school during the “last 3 months”

  23. American Community SurveyData Releases Goal: To produce estimates comparable to the Census 2000 long form data Estimates cover the same small areas (down to the block group level) as Census 2000 long form, but with smaller sample sizes Caveat Smaller sample size = Reduced reliability 25 25

  24. American Community Survey Data Releases: Period Estimates • Period estimates describe the average characteristics over a specific time period • Point-in-time estimates describe characteristics as of a specific date • ACS releases 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year estimates for geographic areas that meet specific population thresholds 26

  25. American Community Survey Methodology • About 250,000 addresses per month included in sample; 3 million addresses each year • Group quarters populations included in the ACS since 2006 • Data collected continuously throughout the year by three modes • Mail • Phone • Personal visit 28

  26. American Community Survey Methodology: Caveats • ACS data are estimates • ACS data are not counts of the population or housing • Population counts are produced from the Decennial Census . . . and • Counts are updated throughout the decade through the Population Estimates Program

  27. American Community Survey Methodology: Sampling error • Theuncertainty associated with an estimate that is based on data gathered from a sampleof the populationrather than the full population • Margin of error (MOE) measures the precision of an estimate at a given level of confidence • MOEs at the 90% confidence level for all published ACS estimates

  28. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates • Definition • A period estimate that encompasses more than one calendar year • Period for ACS multiyear estimates is either 3 or 5 calendar years • First release for 3-year estimate was 2008 (for period 2005-2007) • First release for 5-year estimate is 2010 (for period 2005-2009)

  29. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates: Constructing • Data are pooled across 36 or 60 months • Data are weighted to produce estimates • Estimates are controlled for age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin • Multiyear estimates are not an average of 1-year estimates

  30. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates: When to Use • No one-year estimate is available • Margins of error for 1-year estimates are larger than required • Analyzing data for small population groups

  31. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates: Currency vs. Reliability

  32. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates: How to Label • Multiyear estimates do not represent any one year nor the midpoint of a period • ACS estimates based on data collected from 2006-2008 should not be labeled “2007” or “2008” estimates • Correct labeling for multiyear estimate: The child poverty rate for the 2006-2008 period was X percent.

  33. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates: Inflation Adjustment • Dollar-valued data items are inflation adjusted to the most recent year for the period • Income, rent, home value, and energy costs • Adjusted using inflation factors based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI) • Adjustment designed to put the data into dollars with equal purchasing power

  34. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates: Population Controls Estimates of housing units and people controlled to the population estimates derived from the Population Estimates Program Multiyear estimates controlled to the average of the individual year’s estimates for the period

  35. American Community Survey Multiyear Estimates: Geographic Boundaries • Multiyear estimates are based on geographic boundaries as of January 1 of the last year in the multiyear period • Boundary Annexation Survey collects boundary changes • Boundaries of other statistical areas will be updated every decade in conjunction with the decennial census

  36. American Community SurveyMaking Comparisons: Across Geographies • Only compare the same type of estimate • 1-year estimates to other 1-year estimates • 3-year estimates to other 3-year estimates • 5-year estimates to other 5-year estimates • Use same time period • 2006-2008 in County A • 2006-2008 in County B

  37. American Community SurveyMaking Comparisons: Kentucky counties Franklin Fayette Fulton Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey Handbook for General Audiences

  38. American Community SurveyMaking Comparisons: Across Geographies

  39. American Community SurveyMaking Comparisons: ACS Questionnaire Changes See: About the ACS > Survey Questionnaire > ACS – Summary of Questionnaire Changes

  40. American Community SurveyMaking Comparisons: Which to Compare

  41. American Community Survey Making Comparisons: Different Time Periods • Same geographic area • Use caution if geographic boundaries have changed over time • Easier to compare non-overlapping periods • Make comparisons using the same length time period

  42. American Community SurveyMaking Comparisons: Between Data Sets • Differences exist between ACS and Census 2000 • Comparisons can be made for most population and housing subjects • Crosswalk available • “Compare” • “Compare with Caution” • “Do Not Compare” http://www.census.gov/acs/www/UseData/compACS.htm

  43. Scroll down page . . .

  44. American Community Survey Summary on Multiyear Estimates • Multiyear estimates are period estimates and should be interpreted / labeled as such • Data users should consider the tradeoffs of currency versus reliability • Comparisons between estimates of different geographies should be based on ACS data from the same time periods • It is easier to compare estimates from non-overlapping periods

  45. American Community Survey Tips to Getting the Data You Need • Broaden geography • Place level to county level, for instance • Expand timeframe, if choice is available • Use 5-year estimate instead of 3-year • Use 5- or 3-year estimate instead of single year • Collapse tables • Lower margins of error

  46. ACS Main Page