wildlife diseases pests and control wrm 504 n.
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  2. DISEASE • It involves a state or condition brought about in a living organism by some microorganism or Metazoan/protozoan parasite or by some other cause known and unknown which is detrimental to health and well being of the living organism • In its managerial sense its include mechanical and thermal injuries, nutrition deficiency, provision, hereditary/congenital disease. • In order words its means the abnormal break down, destruction and malfunctioning of cells. Health is the opposite; the maintenance of a state in which the cells remain intact and fully ageing, death and replacement of cells of the animals body.

  3. THE CAUSES AND NATURE OF DISEASES When cells break down and due to the living body the process is called NECROSIS. The death of a cell is irreversible but process can also be stopped/even reversed by the removal of diseases factor/fault which are causing the break down when enough of the cells of one or more of the organ of the body are attacked the organism cannot perform their formation and the animal itself will show visible evidence of the dysfunction.

  4. LIMITING FACTOR CAUSING DISEASES • Mechanical injuries: Simple cuts, break in the skin and born as other tissues and bruises. • Excess heat/cold applied to body tissues cause rapid deterioration and death of cells also burns scalds or foreign of the epidermis causes instantaneous death. • Poison: Any substance that upset the normal function of the cell. • Hereditary condition: Certain hereditary characteristics are lethal, defect in the make up of certain cells of the body which cause them to degenerate can a transmitted by the parent of animal. • Nutritional deficiency: Unless cells obtain the entire nutrient requirement for proteins, mineral nutrient they consist function properly.

  5. ACUTE AND CHRONIC DISEASES These terms are applied to two different stages which occur in the cause of a disease • Acute denotes a condition which is quick and short-lived. • Chronic denote a slow and last longing condition.

  6. INFLAMMATION • Inflammation: Injury of which is not sufficient to cause death in a tissue but provokes a response consisting series of change which act as defense mechanism, this is called inflammation. It may be chronic or acute. In some inflammation which occurs in more vascular areas of the body, thus tissues changes which are recognized by 5 cardinal signs they are: • RUBOR: Increase redness from increased flour of blood to the tissue • CALOR: Increase heat also due to increase blood supply • TUMOUR: Swelling of the part • DOLOR: Increase sensitivity to pain • FUNCTIO-LAESA: Meaning impaired or distort function as a result of tissues damages usually the white blood corpuscle helps in remaining dead cell thus replacing with new cells, this removal by proliferation is the beginning of a process called REPAIR. Repair may be complete and the full function of the organ may be restored.

  7. TUMORS There is a group of disease condition occurring in man and animal which do not provoke the normal response of inflammation they are popularly known as Tumors i.e. swellings and they are of two types. • Benign and Malignant • Benign tumors are usually contain in capsule of fibrous tissue, growth is usually slow, they do tactile or no harm except when they become of a size sufficient to cause damage on a vital part of the body. They can often be removed surgically if necessary. • Malignant tumor popular known as cancer are in the other hand much more dangerous. They are not encapsulated and growth into and destroy surrounding tissues. They have a cell structure similar to the cell of the tissue in which they occur but their cells are abnormal in that they proliferate unrestrictedly and at accelerating rate.

  8. PREDISPOSING FACTORS IN DISEASES Not every animal that is invaded by micro-organism will contact diseases, predisposing factor must be present unless the disease micro-organisms arrive in an environment suitable for their development or multiplication they will die. • MANAGEMENT One major factor which exposes an animal to a disease is a poor or suboptimal nutritional status. The well fed animal has a much better chance; good management will prevent disease even if the initiating factor is present in large numbers. If feed, water, shelter and protection from predator of all sorts is adequate, disease is much easier to control. • STRESS Another predisposing factor is stress, such stress can be stress of an environment such as high temperature or humidity or a lower water content of body (dehydration).

  9. PREDISPOSING FACTORS IN DISEASES • TOLERANCE FACTOR Some disease organisms have been associated with their host disease for long, and they suffer less from the effect of a disease than animal which have not had long contact with it. These are called ABNORMAL host. The normal host suffer less because in the cause of evolution, it has become adapted to the organism and the organism and become adapted to host reaction to it, such adaptation between the two is called TOLERANCE • IMMUNITY If an animal infected with disease organism in number insufficient to kill it, there will be a reaction to it’s’ presence in the body, such that subsequently with the same disease organism even in lethal numbers will not kill the animals, it will affect it or there may not be visible effect at all. This ability to withstand infection is called IMMUNITY.


  11. Viral diseases • Rinderpest: - It is also cattle plague • Cause: - It caused by virus and it is highly contagious viral disease of many ruminant and ungulate. • Symptoms:- Alteration of the mucus membrane of the mouth • Erosion and necrosis of mucus membrane • Digestive tract affected by diarrhea. And signs of mucous discharge

  12. Viral diseases • Model of transmission: direct contact with infected animal. • Effect: (1) Morbidity rate approach 100% • (2) Mortality may exceed 90% in more susceptible animals. • Control: • Rinderpest has been eliminated from west Africa by surfaced program by the Pan-African rinderpest campaign (PARC) jointly funded by European union and food and Agriculture organization (FAO). • Infected animal should be slaughtered and buried

  13. Viral diseases • Foot and Mouth Disease • It is a highly contagious viral infection causative organism:- • Vascular eruption in the mouth and on the feet of the wild animal species affected. Animal affected include American, buffalo, African buffalo, asian buffalo, waterbuck, impala, giraffe, hedgehog etc. All these are susceptible to and carrier of foot and mouth disease.

  14. Viral diseases • Effects:- • Deaths of some wild game animal reported in Kalahari game reserve Botswana include waterbuck, heart best, impala, warthog, deer Eland, wildebeest, African buffalo. Other symptoms that could be seen on infected animal include high fever, general loss of appetite, dejection and swallowing indicating a painful state, peculiar smacking sounds caused by the lips coming together, saliva hanging from the mouth, emaciation, inner surface of the lies and gums are hot, dry and reddish, appearance of vesicles (blister a small swelling of the epidermy containing clear fluid), appearance of vesicles on the muscles and at the root of the horn, the animal become lame with obvious pair in the affected foot, vesicles identical with those in the mouth can be seen in the deft of the foot. • Control:- • It may be by slaughtering or by mass vaccination or combination of the two.

  15. BACTERIA DISEASES • BRUCELLOSIS • Is a highly contagions disease reported in wild and domestic animal, it is caused by Brucella spp. And has zoonosis of worldwide distribution. It is an important disease in man, cattle, sheep, goat, dog and swine. • Wild animal species affected include Zebra, Buffallo, Eland and Impala, Reindeer (were about 25% infections rate). It is also reported in bush buck. • TRANSMISSION • Usually by contact

  16. BACTERIA DISEASES • Susceptible animal can also be infected • EFFECT • Abortion in pregnant animals. • Birth of weak calves with poor survival rate. • Reproductive disorders. • Mammary gland infection in wild Bison.

  17. PARASITES Parasites in the resulted sense an those member of the animal kingdom which derive their means of well being from other member in the animal kingdom at the same time depriving their host of some of the well being. Sometimes the association is not detrimental to the host so that both participant in the relationship benefits, a condition known as SYMBIOSIS.

  18. PARASITES Sometimes the association is not an organic one but simply the derivation of benefit from one by the other individual of the association, be it the sharing of food derived by one of participants or the benefits of shelter or protection a condition called COMMENSALISM.

  19. PARASITES Parasite are classified as Endoparasite and Ectoparasite • Endoparasite or Helminthes as they are called are trematode and cestodes. • The ectoparasited are divided into class insects and class Arachnida

  20. EFFECT OF DISEASES ON WILD ANIMALS • Increase body weight loss • It causes anaemia (shortage of blood). • It results in reproductive disorder e.g inability to reproduce, incomplete foetus. • Diseases results in general body weakness of the animal. • It causes death. • It is also known that wild animal may fall easily to predator when they are weak or sick

  21. Mineral Disorder It become more prevalent as man interrupt mineral cycle via cropping, removing trees, forage and livestock arising from deficiency of particular minerals in the diets of wild animal. Calcium deficiency is perhaps a major mineral problem in captive wildlife species • Effects • Retarded growth • Decreased food consumption • Reduce activities and sensitivity

  22. Mineral Disorder • Osteoporosis: abnormal posture and growth, susceptible to internal hemorrhage • Egg shell thinning • Retarded function growth • Reduced other growth • Phosphorus deficiency • Result in loss of appetite, reduce growth and strength, reduce body growth, weakness and sometimes death. • Excessive intake of phosphorus is associated with low or marginal dietary calcium level.

  23. GENERAL CONTROL OF WILD ANIMAL DISEASES Diseases Probable control 1.Rinder pest Vaccination: Antibiotics Prevention from secondary infection 2.Rabies- Killing of infected animals - Vaccination is ineffective for infected animals 3.Bacterial infection - Treat with broad spectrum antibiotics 4.Parasite e.g.Helminthes - Deworming, use anti- Helminthes 5.Fungi - skin disease exterminable mycotic infection apply copper II solution to affected part. 6.Ringworm- Apply Sulphur and fungicide 7.Aspergilloris Discontinue with the feed (from contamined feed yam, peel) 8.Zoonosis- Keep away domestic/ livestock to avoid disease spread

  24. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS • The identification of a disease affecting livestock is a matter which requires a great deal of careful observation. Diagnosis is not only a science, but also an art. A combination of the two coupled with sufficient knowledge and experience, will enable the observer to make a tentative if not a firm diagnosis, provided he has the necessary equipment and access to laboratory facilities sufficient for the task. There are two areas of enquiry which assist in diagnosing, they are a thorough clinical examination and necropsy sedate the animals and blood samples are collected for analysis clinical examination. Theses are three clearly defined direction disease should be followed. They are

  25. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS • 1. The case history • 2. The examination of the environment • 3. The examination of the animal’s involved

  26. Equipment necessary for necropsy • Knives (large and small) • Sharpening steel • Scissors (including bowel scissors) • Dressing forceps • Saws • Bone cutters • Labels • Rubber gloves • Others include

  27. Equipment necessary for necropsy • Bottles (McCartney) • Quantity of formalin(40% methanol) • Sterile swabs in test tube • A number of alcohol-clean microscope slides • Spatula • Polyether bags • Spirit lamp and spirit • Hand lens • Petri dishes • Soap, water, disinfectant and towel