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The Closed Circulatory System. Humans have a closed circulatory system , typical of all vertebrates, in which blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid. The heart pumps blood into large vessels that branch into smaller ones leading into the organs.

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the closed circulatory system
The Closed Circulatory System
  • Humans have a closed circulatory system, typical of all vertebrates, in which blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid.
    • The heart pumps blood into large vessels that branch into smaller ones leading into the organs.
    • Materials are exchanged by diffusion between the blood and the interstitial fluid bathing the cells.
the cardiovascular system
The Cardiovascular System
  • Three Major Elements – Heart, Blood Vessels, & Blood
    • 1. The Heart- cardiac muscle tissue
    • highly interconnected cells
    • four chambers
      • Right atrium
      • Right ventricle
      • Left atrium
      • Left ventricle
pathway of the blood
Superior Vena Cava

Right Atrium

Tricuspid Valve

Right Ventricle

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve

Lungs

Pulmonary Vein

Bicuspid Valve

Left Ventricle

Aortic Semilunar Valve

Aorta

To the bodies organs & cells

Pathway of the blood
circuits
Circuits
  • Pulmonary circuit
    • The blood pathway between the right side of the heart, to the lungs, and back to the left side of the heart.
  • Systemic circuit
    • The pathway between the left and right sides of the heart.
figure 19 5 systemic pulmonary circuits
Figure 19.5 Systemic & pulmonary circuits

Blood from body enters

Right Atrium

Arteries carry blood AWAY

from the heart

Blood from lungs enters

Left Atrium

Veins carry blood

to the heart

(like ven in Spanish)

Right Ventricle sends blood

to lungs

Left Ventricle sends blood

to rest of body

the cardiovascular system1
The Cardiovascular System

Blood Vessels -A network of tubes

  • Arteriesarterioles move away from the heart
    • Elastic Fibers
    • Circular Smooth Muscle
    • Not always Red (notice the pulmonary artery carries blue blood - deoxygenated blood)
  • Capillaries – where gas exchange takes place.
    • One cell thick
    • Serves the Respiratory System
  • VeinsVenules moves towards the heart
    • Skeletal Muscles contract to force blood back from legs
    • One way values
    • When they break - varicose veins form
    • Not always Blue (notice the pulmonary veins carry red blood –oxygenated blood)
figure 19 9b operation of atrioventricular valves of the heart
Figure 19.9B Operation of atrioventricular valves of the heart

The AV valves shown here are responsible for the Dub sound in the heart.

When the valves close, they slam together and make a dub sound.