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The Population Mean and Standard Deviation. σ. X. μ. Computing the Mean and the Standard Deviation in Excel. μ = AVERAGE(range) δ = STDEV(range). Exercise. Compute the mean, standard deviation, and variance for the following data: 1 2 3 3 4 8 10 Check Figures Mean = 4.428571

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The population mean and standard deviation
The Population Mean andStandard Deviation

σ

X

μ


Computing the mean and the standard deviation in excel
Computing the Mean and the Standard Deviation in Excel

μ = AVERAGE(range)

δ = STDEV(range)


Exercise
Exercise

  • Compute the mean, standard deviation, and variance for the following data:

  • 1 2 3 3 4 8 10

  • Check Figures

    • Mean = 4.428571

    • Standard deviation = 3.309438

    • Variance = 10.95238


The normal distribution
The Normal Distribution

P(-∞ to X)

μ

X


Solving for p to x in excel
Solving for P(-∞ to X) in Excel

  • P(-∞ to X) =

  • NORMDIST(X, mean, stdev, cumulative)

    • X = value for which we want P(-∞ to X)

    • Mean = µ

    • Stdev = δ

    • Cumulative = True (It just is)


Exercise in solving for p to x
Exercise in Solving for P(-∞ to X)

  • What portion of the adult population is under 6 feet tall if the mean for the population is 5 feet and the standard deviation is 1 foot?

    • Check figure = 0.841345


P x to
P(X to ∞)

P(X to ∞)

μ

X


P x to1
P(X to ∞)

P(-∞ to X)

P(X to ∞)

μ

X

P=1.0

P(X to ∞) = 1 – P(-∞ to X)


Exercise1
Exercise

  • What portion of the adult population is OVER 6 feet tall if the mean for the population is 5 feet and the standard deviation is 1 foot?

    • Check figure = 0.158655


P x 1 to x 2
P(X1 to X2)

P(X1 < X < X2)

X1

X2


P x 1 to x 2 in excel
P(X1 to X2) in Excel

P(X1 to X2) = P(-∞ to X2) - P(-∞ to X1)

P(X1 to X2)=NORMDIST(X2…)–NORMDIST(X1…)


Exercise in p x 1 to x 2 in excel
Exercise in P(X1 to X2) in Excel

  • What portion of the adult population is between 6 and 7 feet tall if the mean for the population is 5 feet and the standard deviation is 1 foot?

    • Check figure = 0.135905


Computing x
Computing X

P(-∞ to X)

μ

X


Computing x in excel
Computing X in Excel

  • X = NORMINV(probability, mean, stdev)

    • Probability is P(-∞ to X)


Exercise in computing x in excel
Exercise in Computing X in Excel

  • An adult population has a mean of 5 feet and a standard deviation is 1 foot. Seventy-five percent of the people are shorter than what height?

    • Check figure = 5.67449


Z distribution
Z Distribution

μ = 8

σ = 10

μ= 0

σ = 1

X

Z

8

8.6

0

0.12

P(X < 8.6)

P(Z < 0.12)

A transformation of normal distributions into a standard form with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. It is sometimes useful.


Computing p to z in excel
Computing P(-∞ to Z) in Excel

  • Z = (X-μ)/δ

  • P(-∞ to Z) = NORMDIST(Z, mean, stdev, cumulative)

    • Mean = 0

    • Stdev = 1

    • Z = (X-μ)/δ

    • Cumulative = True (It just is)


Exercise in computing p to z in excel
Exercise in Computing P(-∞ to Z) in Excel

  • An adult population has a mean of 5 feet and a standard deviation is 1 foot. Compute the Z value for 4.5 feet all. What portion of all people are under 4.5 feet tall

    • Z check figure = -.5 (the minus is important)

    • P check figure = 0.308537539


Z distribution1
Z Distribution

μ = 8

σ = 10

μ= 0

σ = 1

X

Z

8

8.6

0

0.12

P(X < 8.6)

P(Z < 0.12)

A transformation of normal distributions into a standard form with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. It is sometimes useful.


Computing z in excel
Computing Z in Excel

  • Z for a certain value of P(-∞ to Z) =NORMINV(probilility, mean, stdev)

    • Probability = P(-∞ to Z)

    • Mean = 0

    • Stdev = 1

  • Change the Z value to an X value if necessary

    • Z = (X-μ)/δ, so

    • X = µ + Z δ


Exercise in computing z in excel
Exercise in Computing Z in Excel

  • An adult population has a mean of 5 feet and a standard deviation is 1 foot. 25% of the population is greater than what height?

    • Check figure for Z = 0.67449

    • Check figure for X = 0.308537539


Sampling distribution of the mean
Sampling Distribution of the Mean

Normal Population Distribution

δ is the

Population

Standard

Deviation

Normal Sampling Distribution

(has the same mean)

δXbar is the

Sample Standard

Deviation.

δXbar = δ/√n

δXbar << δ


Sampling distribution of the mean1
Sampling Distribution of the Mean

  • For the sampling distribution of the mean.

    • The mean of the sampling distribution is Xbar

    • The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the mean, δXbar, is δ/√n

  • This only works if δ is known, of course.


Exercise in using excel in the sampling distribution of the mean
Exercise in Using Excel in the Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The sample mean is 7. The population standard distribution is 3. The sample size is 100

Compute the probability that the true mean is less than 5.

Compute the probability that the true mean is 3 to 5


Confidence interval if is known
Confidence Interval if Meanδ is Known

X units:

Lower

Confidence

Limit

Xmin

PointEstimatefor Xbar

Upper

Confidence

Limit

Xmax

Using X


Confidence interval
Confidence Interval Mean

  • 95% confidence level

  • Xmin is for P(-∞ to Xmin) = 0.025

  • Xmax is for P(-∞ to Xmax) = 0.975

  • X = NORMINV(probability, mean, stddev)

    • Here, stdev is δXbar = δ/√n


Exercise2
Exercise Mean

  • For a sample of 25, the sample mean is 100. The population standard deviation is 50.

  • What is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution?

    • Check figure: 10

  • What are the limits of the 95% confidence level?

    • Check figure for minimum: 80.40036015

    • Check figure for maximum: 119.5996


Confidence interval if is known1
Confidence Interval if Meanδ is Known

Zα/2 = -1.96

Zα/2 = 1.96

Z units:

0

Done Using Z


Confidence intervals with z in excel
Confidence Intervals with Z in Excel Mean

  • Xmin = Xbar – Zα/2 * δ/√n

    • Why?

    • Because multiplying a Z value by δ/√n gives the X value associated with the Z value

  • Xmax = Xbar + Zα/2 * δ/√n

  • Common Zα/2 value:

    • 95% confidence level = 1.96


Exercise in confidence intervals with z in excel
Exercise in Confidence Intervals Meanwith Z in Excel

  • The sampling mean Xbar is 100. The population standard deviation, δ, is 50. The sample size is 25. What are Xmin and Xmax for the 95% confidence level?

    • Check figure: Zα/2 = 1.96

    • Xmin = 80.4 (same as before)

    • Xmax = 119.6 (same as before)


Confidence intervals unknown
Confidence Intervals, Meanδ Unknown

  • Use the sample standard deviation S instead of δXbar.

    • No need to divide S by the square root of n

    • Because S is not based on the population δ

  • Use the t distribution instead of the normal distribution.


Computing the t values
Computing the t values Mean

  • Z = TINV(probability, df)

    • probability is P(-∞ to X)

    • df = degrees of freedom = n-1 for the sampling distribution of the mean.

  • Xmin = Xbar – Z(.025,n-1)*S

  • Xmax = Xbar + Z(.975,n-1)*S


Exercise3
Exercise Mean

  • For a sample of 25, the sample mean is 100. The sample standard deviation is 5.

  • What is Z for the 95% confidence interval?

    • Check figure 2.390949

  • What is the lower X limit?

    • Check figure 88.04525 (With δ known, was 80.40036015)

  • What is the upper X limit?

    • Check figure 111.9547 (With δ known, was 119.5996)


T test for two samples
t test for two samples Mean

What is the probability that two samples have the same mean?


The t test analysis
The t Test Analysis Mean

Go to the Data tab

Click on data analysis

Select t-Test for Two-Sample(s) with Equal Variance


With our data and 05 confidence level
With Our Data and .05 Confidence Level Mean

t stat = 0.08

t critical for two-tail (H1 = not equal) = 2.18.

T stat < t Critical, so do not reject the null hypothesis of equal means.

Also, α is 0.94, which is far larger than .05


T test two sample equal variance
t Test: MeanTwo-Sample, Equal Variance

If the variances of the two samples are believed to be the same, use this option.

It is the strongest t test—most likely to reject the null hypothesis of equality if the means really are different.


T test two sample unequal variance
t Test: MeanTwo-Sample, Unequal Variance

  • Does not require equal variances

    • Use if you know they are unequal

    • Use is you do not feel that you should assume equality

  • You lose some discriminatory power

    • Slightly less likely to reject the null hypothesis of equality if it is true


T test two sample paired
t Test: MeanTwo-Sample, Paired

In the sampling, the each value in one distribution is paired with a value in the other distribution on some basis.

For example, equal ability on some skill.


Z test for two sample means
z Test for Two Sample Means Mean

Population standard deviation is unknown.

Must compute the sample variances.


Z test
z test Mean

Z value is greater than z Critical for two tails (not equal),

so reject the null hypothesis of the means being equal.

Also, α = 2.31109E-08 < .05, so reject.

Data tab

Data analysis

z test sample for two means


Exercise4
Exercise Mean

Repeat the analysis above.