Mechanical Hoist / Derrick Crane & Rigging Manual Material Handling Storage & Disposal Forklifts / Roof Buggies
DANGERS OF MATERIAL HANDLING • Unsafe storage and material movement can lead to: • Back injuries (the number one cause of worker compensation claims). • Struck-by or crushed by falling loads due to rigging failures. • Electrocutions due to power line contact. • Injury from falling materials. • Injury from slipping, tripping and falling. • Property Damage • Equipment Failure
What exactly does we need to know about crane safety? • Those working with & around cranes should be aware of; • Common causes of crane incidents • How to recognize improper crane setups • Electrical hazards • Understanding of crane limitations due to angle, wind, and weight • Hand signals • OSHA & Captive inspection requirements http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=3e8_1190600875
Rigging Failure 15% Load Handling 14% Electrocution 44% Operator Error 7% Overload 7% Dismantling Boom 5% Wire Rope Failure 3% Struck by Crane 3% Miscellaneous 3% Common Causes of Crane Fatalities
High Wind 1.6% Support Failure 31.5% Machinery & Structural Failure 11.2% Operator Error 33.1% Failure to Use Outriggers 22.6% Common Causes of Crane Accidents 55% of crane accidents are due to improper set up (Support failure, failure to use outriggers)
Crane Setup Outrigger pads in use when necessary Outriggers in use and on stable ground
Crane Setup • The crane shall be uniformly level within one percent of level grade and located on firm footing. 1 Degree out of level can reduce rated capacities by as much as 30%!! Boom Length and Lift Radius 1% 2% 3% Chart Capacity Lost When Crane Out of Level Short Boom, Minimum Radius. 10% 20% 30% Short Boom, Maximum Radius 8% 15% 20% Long Boom, Minimum Radius 30% 41% 50% Long Boom, Maximum Radius 5% 10% 15%
Crane Setup (a)(9) Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the rotating superstructure of the crane, either permanently or temporarily mounted, shall be barricaded in such a manner as to prevent an employee from being struck or crushed by the crane.
Crane Setup • (a)(15) Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the following: • For lines rated 50 kV. 10 feet; • For lines rated over 50 kV., 10 feet plus .4 inches for each kV. over 50 kV. • A person shall be designated to observe clearance!
Crane Limitations & Load Charts • Rated Load Charts must be in the crane. • Refer to shipping ticket or other documentation for weight • Ensure load is within load chart rating for boom length and load radius of crane • Crane is rated by the maximum weight it will lift at a minimum radius and minimum boom length – the further from its centerpoint, the less it will lift
Crane Limitations & Load Charts • Operators must be aware of different load charts, and reductions. • Numerous reductions must be made for items including; • Hook block • Headache ball • Jib • Rigging • Etc. • Load charts differ if; • hoisting over the front or side • On rubber, half outrigger, full outrigger
Load Example – 65 ton crane • Will lift 130,000 pounds at 10 feet from the center pin of the crane • Based on level surface, no wind, and outriggers fully extended • At 25 feet from the center pin with an 82 foot boom, the capacity is only 47,150 pounds • At 80 feet from the center pin, the capacity is only 8,560 pounds ALL WEIGHTS ARE BEFORE REDUCTIONS
Grove RT865 65 Ton Capacity ON OUTRIGGERS FULLY EXTENDED — OVER THE FRONT BEFORE REDUCTIONS!
Hand Signals • An illustration of the signals must be posted at the job site. • The operator should have one “signal man” and point of contact. The only signal anyone can give is emergency stop.
OSHA & CAPTIVE INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS OSHA: • Competent person inspect all machinery • prior to each use, and • during use, • Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use. Safety Representatives should also be aware of certain inspection points; Outriggers, tires properly inflated, proximity to electrical lines, cable condition, leaky or worn hoses, correct spooling, other obvious deficiencies HC&A strongly recommends that an inspection log be maintained in every crane
OSHA & CAPTIVE INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS SSOP: ANNUAL 3RD PARTY CRANE INSPECTIONS • Although many in the captive who own cranes have already implemented this item, the LCC felt it was critical to make it mandatory. • 3RD Party inspections; • Provide comfort to the company & operator in knowing the crane is in good repair. • Enhances the operators knowledge of crane & components • Meets credentials for GC’s and Owners who now mandate this documentation.
OSHA & CAPTIVE INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS Crane SSOP’S: 1. Operators working in states that require licensing must be licensed. (MANDATORY) 2. Operators working in states that do not require licensing must receive a minimum of 8-Hours Mobile Crane Awareness Training every two years. (MANDATORY) 3. Operators should obtain Certified Crane Operator certificates from the NCCCO. This requires specific training and testing from authorized training agencies. (RECOMMENDED) • Current OSHA regulations do very little to address operator training. • OSHA’s new proposed regulations provide four options for operator certification; • 1. Certification through an ‘accredited’ third party agency • 2. Qualification through an audited employer testing program • 3. Qualification through the military • 4. Qualification by a state or local licensing authority
CERTIFIED CRANE OPERATOR (CCO) TRAINING & TESTING UNITED CRANEX INC. • Location: Lakewood, NJ • Length of Class: 3-4 Days • Cost: $950.00 Per Person (includes written exam) • Practical Exam: $260.00 • Success Rate: Claim its at 80% ($165.00 for retest) • Class Size: Minimum 14 ee’s, maximum 20 ee’s Again, this certification is recommended only, though there is no better way to ensure your operators have sufficient training, and upcoming OSHA legislation will likely make this mandatory for crane operators in the future.
Other Crane Safety Issues • When loading a roof, have pallets or other heavy material set on beams to disperse weight. • Be careful when stockpiling debris to be unloaded by cranes, both for weight distribution and damages by wind-blown materials. • The area below a swinging load must be kept clear of employees and pedestrians. • Hard hats are required of all involved in crane operations. • Tag lines should be used for awkward shaped loads or in windy situations.
The Riggers Responsibilities Crane Operator Rigger
The Users Responsibilities • Utilize Appropriate Rigging Suitable For Overhead Lifting. • Utilize The Rigging Gear Within Industry Standards And The Manufacturers Recommendations. • Conduct Regular Inspection And Maintenance Of The Rigging Gear.
Three Types of Slings • Chain Slings • Wire Rope Slings • Synthetic Web Slings
Frequency of Sling Inspections 1926.251 – Rigging equipment for material handling shall be inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to ensure that it is safe. - Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service.
Definitions Definitions Definitions • Hitch “Basket” - loading with the sling passed under the load and both ends on the hook or a single master link. • Hitch “Choker” – loading with the sling passed through one eye and suspended by the other. • Hitch “Vertical” – loading with the the load suspended vertically on a single part or leg of the sling.
Sling CapacitiesWhichever sling is used, the rigger must understand the effects sling angles present SLING CAPACITY DECREASES, AS THE SLING ANGLE DECREASES 30 45 60 90 60 45 30
Rated Lifting Capacities • ALL SLINGS MUST HAVE THE RATED HOIST CAPACITIES LISTED AND LEGIBLE. • Synthetic slings will have a sewn in label. • Cable & chain rigging will have attached capacity tags. • Without legible hoisted capacities, the sling cannot be used!
Wire Rope Sling Inspection Items • Three randomly distributed broken wires in one strand, in one rope lay. • Wear or scraping of 1/3 the original diameter of outside individual wires. • Kinking, crushing or any damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope. • End attachments that are cracked, worn or deformed. • Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.
Wire Rope Slings Remove From Service If these happen, remove the wire rope sling from service Kinking Bird Caging Crushing
Wire Rope Damage A permanent kink in a wire rope sling causes loss of strength. Discard the sling!
Synthetic Web Slings -Remove from Service Remove from service if any of these are present: • Acid or caustic burns • Melting or charring of any part • Snags, punctures, tears or cuts • Broken or worn stitches • Distortion of fittings • STRETCHING!! Heat Damage
Red your dead…..isn’t always accurate. OSHA will still issue citations if they believe a sling has been critically damaged. A puncture, cut, or other types of damage which would require a sling to be removed from service, may not expose the color wear indicators inside the strap.
Safe Usage Practices • Slings should be stored off of the floor and hung on racks whenever possible in a clean, dry environment. • Never drag slings across the floor. • Hands and Fingers shall not be placed between the sling and the load while the sling is being tightened around the load.
Safe Usage Practices • TRAIN EMPLOYEES TO “TEST LIFT” AND STAND CLEAR OF LOAD DURING INITIAL LIFT. • Cranes not directly over loads will cause the load to swing upon hoisting, possibly striking those unsuspecting. STAND CLEAR!!
Safe Usage Practices (Cont.) • Never shock load slings. • Keep loads balanced to prevent overloading slings. • Always lift loads straight up. • Never rest a load on a sling, or pinch a sling between the load and the floor. • A sling should not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling. • Make sure the hook is always over the center of gravity of the load before lifting it. • Do not force or hammer hooks or chains into position.
Rigging Protection FromCutting or Slipping Sharp edges can slice a sling in two without warning as the load is tensioned. Use softeners or padding on corners.
Roof Hoists What are the manufacturer’s instructions for set up & use? What does OSHA say?
Roof Hoists • .552(a)(1) Compliance with manufacturer’s specifications and limitations. • .552(a)(2) Load capacity, hazard warnings and instructions must be posted. • .552(a)(3)(i-iv) Wire rope replacement criteria. • .552(a)(4) Hoist rope is to be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. • .501(b)(3) Fall Protection (Subpart M) in hoist area.
Is the Hoist Operator Protected? Common problems include; Lack of fall protection, improperly sized or damaged rope, improper counterweights.
Buggies What are the safety concerns while moving materials with these?
Buggies • Guards must be in place • Cannot be used outside of warning lines or in areas under the supervision of a safety monitor • Speed control • Use caution when refueling!