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About the 8 keV plasma at the Galactic Center. High Energy Phenomena in the Galactic Center 17 th June 20005. CEA, Saclay Belmont R. Tagger M. UCLA Muno M. Morris M. Cowley S. The Galactic Center:. R ≤ 150-180 pc ( ~ Central Molecular Zone). X-ray and radio observations:

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about the 8 kev plasma at the galactic center
About the 8 keV plasma at the Galactic Center

High Energy Phenomena in the Galactic Center

17th June 20005

  • CEA, Saclay
  • Belmont R.
  • Tagger M.
  • UCLA
  • Muno M.
  • Morris M.
  • Cowley S.
slide2

The Galactic

Center:

R ≤ 150-180 pc

(~ Central Molecular Zone)

  • X-ray and radio observations:
  • - SN remnants
  • discrete point sources,
  • gas, clouds…
  • Arcs, Filaments
  • Pervasive, vertical, magnetic field
  • (Morris & Serabyn 1996)
spectral components muno et al 2004

6.7 keV

6.9 keV

Soft phase:

Ionized lines + bremstrahlung

 T ~ 0.8 keV

Patchy distribution

= SN remnants

Hot phase :

6.7 + 6.9 keV + bremstrahlung

 T ~ 8 keV,

Diffuse

large scale: 300pc*200pc (and more)

Spectral components:(Muno et al. 2004)
the hot phase as a diffuse plasma at 8 kev
The hot phase as a diffuse plasma at 8 keV
  • Origin of the hard diffuse emission: (Muno et al. 2004)
    • Non thermal emission ?
    • discrete point sources ?
    • Chandra: Diffuse plasma.
  • Diffuse plasma ? (Kaneda et al., 97)
    • Vertical magnetic field.
    • Cs > 1500km/s ≥ vescape ~ 1100 km/s  not bound to the galactic plane…
    • Very fast escape: esc~ 40 000 yr
    • Heating source must be very efficient (> 30 SNe / yr in the Galaxy !!)
  • Also: heating mechanism ?
i the confinement problem submitted
I. The confinement problem… (submitted)
  • Elements with different weight behave differently:
    • Protons alone must escape (vth > vesc)
    • Other ions alone would not escape (vth < vesc)
  • What happens for H+He ?
    • Can protons drag other ions ?
    • Faint(0.1 cm-3) + hot :~e~ 105 yr > esc
    • Collisionless escape => No drag.
  • Conclusion: plasma of helium and metals
a hot helium plasma
A Hot Helium plasma ?
  • Too hot => no H- or He lines
  • New estimates for inferred plasma parameters:
    • Lower densities and abundances:
    • n(He) ~n(H)/3
    • [Fe]/[He] for He plasma ~ 1/3*([Fe]/[He] for H plasma)

Fe trapped in grains in molecular clouds ?

H-like Argon line ?

  • Radiative cooling time ~ 108 yr = long time scale…
    • Reasonable energy requirement
ii a possible heating mechanism

B

Galactic plane

II. A possible heating mechanism
  • Gravitational energy of molecular clouds
    • ~100 of them
    • ~10 pc size
    • ~100 km/s relative velocity

(Bally et al. 87, Oka et al. 98…)

  • Viscosity: (Braginskii 65)

B => No shear viscosity: bulk/shear ~ 1017 !!

The bulk viscosity acts on compressional motion:

  • Efficiency:
    • Subsonic motion: vc < cs < va => wea k compression
    • Very high viscosity: ~ T5/2 => high 
    • Depends on the exact flow around the clouds…
slide8

Alfvén wing

-> wing flux: FA

But incompressible !

B

Slow MS wing:

-> wing flux: FS

And compressible

V

Fast MS perturbation: - 2D toy model

- asymptotic expansion in vc/va

-> dissipated power: QF

The wake of a cloud: (in a low- plasma)

Drell et al. 65, Neubauer 80,

Wright & Schwartz 90, Linker 91…

slide9

Fast:

Too weak…

Slow:

OK…

Alfvén:

1% dissipation would be sufficient… (irregularities, curvature…)

In the Central Region (h*d = 200*300 pc2):

Cloud number: ~ 100 hot component luminosity: ~ 5. 1037 erg/s

And more:

+ complex clouds structures

+ intermittent accretion

slide10
An intriguing coincidence:
    • The hotter, the more viscous:~ T5/2
    • The hotter, the less collisional: coll~ T3/2
    • forcoll >> 0 the efficiency drops most efficient for coll~0
    • For the clouds: = r/v ~ 5 104 yr ~ He-He = optimal regime
    • Coincidence orselfregulation mechanism ?
  • Consequence on accretion:
    • emission of Alfvén waves = associated drag(cf artificial satellites)
    • => loss of gravitational energy andaccretion
conclusions
Conclusions:
  • In the conditions deduced from observations, H must escape whereas heavier elements may remain. This solves the energetics problem.
  • A possible heating mechanism is the dissipation of the gravitational energy of molecular clouds by viscosity.
  • The associated drag on the cold clouds would help in accreting matter to the central object.
  • more analytical work + simulations

THANK YOU !

braginskii viscosity
Braginskii Viscosity
  • Viscosity: =~l2/~ P~ nkT

~ nvv

    • Perfect gas: v~cst ~ n-1T-1/2  ~ T1/2
    • Ionized gas: v~v-4~ n-1T3/2  ~ T5/2
  • Magnetized plasma  Braginskii viscosity (1965):
    • Bulk viscosity: Fi = 0didjvj
    • Shear viscosity: Fi = 1 dj2vi
    • Shear / bulk = 10-20