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Riverview Heights. Darren K. Howard Structural Option. Architectural Engineering Spring Thesis 2005 Advisor: Dr. Ali Memari. Riverview Heights. Darren K. Howard Structural Option. Table of Contents:. 1.0 Project Background 2.0 Problem Statement 3.0 Solution Overview

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riverview heights
Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

Architectural Engineering

Spring Thesis 2005

Advisor: Dr. Ali Memari

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

Table of Contents:

1.0 Project Background

2.0 Problem Statement

3.0 Solution Overview

4.0 Structural Redesign

5.0 Mechanical Issues

6.0 Acoustical Issues

7.0 Cost Estimates

8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations

Acknowledgements

Questions

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

1.0 PROJECT BACKGROUND

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 1.0 Project Background:
  • Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
  • 4 apartment levels
  • 2 levels of partially underground parking
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 1.1 Apartment Structural Systems:
  • Bearing Walls: Wood stud walls
  • Floor: 20” deep, floor trusses
  • Lateral System: Wood Panel Shear Walls
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 1.1 Parking Structural Systems:
  • Elevated Two-Way concrete slab with drop panels
  • Top slab is a 11” thick “transfer slab”
  • “Transfer slab” picks up random bearing wall loads
  • Concrete columns send loads to spread footings
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 2.0 Problem Statement
  • Lumber is a renewable, but not unlimited resource
  • New building materials will eventually become necessary
  • Alternative materials and methods must be found
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

3.0 SOLUTION OVERVIEW

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 3.0 Solution Overview
  • Cold-formed steel buildings are growing in popularity
  • Recyclable material
  • Not susceptible to termite damage
  • Will not burn or harbor mold
  • Will not rot, shrink, warp or split
  • Prices for cold-formed steel have been more stable than lumber
  • Construction methods are very similar to wood framing
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

4.0 STRUCTURAL REDESIGN

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.0 Structural Redesign
  • Replace existing bearing walls with cold-formed studs
  • Replace wood floor trusses with cold-formed joists
  • Investigate the use of possible lateral systems:
    • Wood panel shear walls over cold-formed studs
    • Lateral strap bracing
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

4.1 BEARING WALLS

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.1 Bearing Wall Redesign
  • Existing bearing walls and unit separation walls:
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.1 Bearing Wall Redesign
  • Design Considerations:
    • Replace existing unit separation walls with a single cold-formed stud wall
    • Set studs at a spacing of 24” o.c. rather than 16” o.c.
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.1 Bearing Wall Redesign
  • Redesigned Walls:
    • Unit separation walls: 6” wide studs @ 24” o.c.
    • Interior bearing walls: 3-5/8” studs @ 24” o.c.
    • Gauge of stud varies from floor to floor
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

4.1 Bearing Wall Redesign

Unit Separation Walls

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

4.1 Bearing Wall Redesign

Interior Unit Bearing Walls

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

4.2 FLOOR SYSTEM

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.2 Floor System Redesign
  • Existing Floor: 16’ to 25’ interior spans
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.2 Floor System Redesign
  • Design considerations:
    • Cold-formed steel joists should require less depth
    • This will add additional floor-to-floor height in units
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.2 Floor System Redesign
  • Redesigned Joists: 14j10 Marino/Ware Joists
    • 14” deep, 10 gauge joists @ 24” o.c.
    • Allowable p.l.f. = 130 p.l.f. ( d < L/360)
    • An additional 6” of floor-to-floor height is achieved
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

4.3 LATERAL RESISTANCE

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.3 Lateral System Redesign
  • Existing Lateral System: Wood Shear Panel Walls
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.3 Lateral System Redesign
  • Design Considerations:
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.3.1 Lateral System Redesign
  • Alternative #1: Wood shear panels over cold-formed studs
    • Greater strength = fewer shear walls required

# of Shear Walls Required

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.3.2 Lateral System Redesign
  • Alternative #2: Lateral Strap Bracing
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 4.3.2 Lateral System Redesign
  • Alternative #2: Lateral Strap Bracing
  • STAAD frame model of tension braces
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

4.3.2 Lateral System Redesign

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

5.0 MECHANICAL

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 5.0 Mechanical Issue
  • Major disadvantage of cold-formed steel
    • Thermal conductivity

HOT

COLD

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 5.0 Mechanical Issue
  • Add a thermal break between the exterior and interior space
  • An additional layer of 1” rigid insulation must be installed
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

5.0 Mechanical Issue

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

6.0 ACOUSTICS

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 6.0 Acoustics
  • Cold-formed studs have lower acoustical properties
  • Riverview Heights was designed as an “average” site
  • Unit separation walls and floors need to meet an STC rating of 52
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 6.0 Acoustics
  • An additional 5/8” of gypsum is required on both sides of walls to meet acoustical requirements
  • Existing wood floor trusses and the redesigned joists required resilient channels on the ceiling side
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 6.0 Acoustics
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

7.0 COST ESTIMATES

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 7.0 Cost Estimates
  • Estimate of Wood Framing
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 7.0 Cost Estimates
  • Estimate of Cold-Formed Framing
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 7.0 Cost Estimates
  • Cold-Formed Framing Additional Costs
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 7.0 Cost Estimates
  • Total Costs
  • CF joists are more than twice the cost of wood floor trusses!!
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 7.0 Cost Estimates
  • Total Costs without Floor Systems
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • 8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Cold-formed framing is a viable solution if the redesigned floor framing is not included
  • Cost of the cold-formed floor framing was more than twice the cost of wood trusses
  • Cold-formed framing used less material in walls and in lateral systems
  • Using less material translated into lower costs
  • Promising conclusion as the need for alternative building materials becomes greater in the next century
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

  • Acknowledgements
  • My family and friends
  • A.E. faculty
  • Staff of Cates Engineering
  • Trammel Crow Residential
  • Minno & Wasko Architects
  • Marino/Ware
  • Images courtesy of Marino/Ware, Cates Engineering, and Minno & Wasko Architects
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Riverview Heights

Darren K. HowardStructural Option

Questions?