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Division and Reconciliation Unit Review. Spirituals. LITERARY TERMS. Spiritual- Folk songs by slaves with biblical references Refrain- Repeats, effects on song Repetition- Reinforced ideas, what was repeated in each Rhyme & Rhythm- Used for effect & reinforcement.

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literary terms
  • Spiritual- Folk songs by slaves with biblical references
  • Refrain- Repeats, effects on song
  • Repetition- Reinforced ideas, what was repeated in each
  • Rhyme & Rhythm- Used foreffect & reinforcement
swing low sweet chariot
“Swing Low, Sweet Chariot”
  • Expresses desire for eternal salvation in heaven.
  • Longing for freedom and from slavery.
  • “Band of Angels” is symbol of the underground railroad.
  • Based on Old Testament story.
go down moses
“Go Down, Moses”
  • Typical spiritual for biblical reference.
  • Moses is appropriate, led Israelites out of Egypt to freedom.
  • Slaves identify because both suffered oppression.
my bondage and my freedom

My Bondage and My Freedom

Frederick Douglass

frederick douglass
Frederick Douglass
  • Gifted writer and speaker
  • Famous for efforts to fight for abolition of slavery
  • Education was key
  • Helped women win the right to vote as well
  • Proponent for fair and equal rights
literary terms1
Literary Terms
  • Autobiography – an individual’s written account of his/her own life
  • Tone – author’s attitude toward the subject
my bondage and my freedom1
My Bondage and My Freedom
  • Consumed with learning and want for freedom, he grows to hate the institution of slavery.
  • Message is that slavery harms ALL involved.
  • Douglass’s attitude toward slavery was that it goes against the nature of both slave & owner.
an occurrence at owl creek bridge

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

Ambrose Bierce

“Bitter Bierce”

literary terms2
Literary Terms
  • Omniscient- narrator is an objective observer of everything.
  • Third-person limited – narrator relate the inner thoughts and feelings of the character.
  • Stream-of-consciousness - thoughts and ideas the way the human mind thinks. Short bursts, not always clear or logical.
  • Chronological order - represent the order of events.
an occurrence at owl creek bridge1
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
  • Civil war hanging of a southern planter who tried to sabotage the North.
  • As Peyton Farquhar prepares to die, his imagination takes over.
  • Surprise ending!
mark twain bret harte

Mark Twain & Bret Harte

The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County


The Outcasts of Poker Flat

mark twain
Mark Twain

Real name was Samuel Clemens

Known as the greatest American author

Life on the Mississippi River (setting of many of his stories)

Traveled all over country & Europe

Riverboat pilot, printer, journalist and lecturer

humor evoke laughter
  • Use of exaggeration (hyperbole)
  • Embellish incidents
  • Regional dialect – language specific to a particular area
  • Use of a serious narrator that has ridiculous qualities but is unaware (understatement)
the notorious jumping frog
The Notorious Jumping Frog…
  • Simon Wheeler tells story of a betting man (Jim Smiley)
  • Smiley is clever & competitive.
  • Wanted a stranger to bet on Dan’l.
  • Simon Wheeler does not recognize how ridiculous his tale is which adds to the humor
  • Depicts the unique qualities of a particular place and it’s people
  • Use of LOCAL COLOR= highlights characteristics unique to a time and place
  • Popular when America was expanding, mid-to-late-1800’s
the outcasts of poker flat1
“The Outcasts of Poker Flat”

Typical Southwest town

Certain “characters” have been banished from town

Mr. Oakhurst is the main character tries to “save” them all

EACH character is flat in order to illustrate specific traits.

the outcast of poker flat
“The Outcast of Poker Flat”

Author’s attitude toward the outcasts is sympathetic.

Main message: punishment without justice is as bad as the crime.

literary terms3
Literary Terms
  • TONE – the quality of language revealing distinct emotions and expresses the author’s attitude .
  • MOOD – the feeling created in the reader through the use of the tone.
  • Native Americans used the land, but felt that they did not own it!
  • Culture of hunters so they ranged over a vast territory.
  • Settlers felt differently feeling they owned the land they settled on.
  • Created strong opposing view points.
  • Originally from the Oregon area, Joseph was leader of the Nez Perce.
  • Government tried to relocate his people to Idaho.
  • Reluctantly signed treated giving the gov. control over their land.
  • He thought it was illegal and refused to recognize it.
  • War erupts and his forces join with the Sioux.
  • Great leadership helped them to win many battles but were eventually forced to surrender.
  • Forced to live in the barren Oklahoma territory, many became ill and died.
i will fight no more forever1
I Will Fight No More Forever
  • Emotionally charged
  • Became a symbol of the Native American’s tragic plight.
literary terms4
Literary Terms
  • Internal & External Conflict
  • Dramatic Irony
  • Predictions
to build a fire1
To Build A Fire
  • Along the Yukon river of the frozen Northern wilderness of Alaska.
  • An inexperienced yet confident man & his dog make a long & dangerous journey on foot toward camp.
  • Temperatures are much colder than the man anticipated: 1st mistake!
  • Builds a fire in the wrong spot: 2nd mistake, proves to be fatal!
to build a fire2
To Build a Fire
  • Nature is the antagonist.
  • Man’s overconfidence contributes to his downfall.
kate chopin
Kate Chopin
  • Powerful & controversial writers of the time
  • Influenced by American Regionalists
  • Uses local color to capture the essence of life in Louisiana.
kate chopin1
Kate Chopin
  • Explored bold & radical themes such as:
    • Nature of marriage
    • Racial prejudice
    • Women’s desire for social, economical, and political equality
kate chopin2
Kate Chopin
  • Novel The Awakening was banned for content of a women’s search for independence and fulfillment
  • Today, it is in the top 5 most read in colleges and universities
  • VERBAL – use of words to suggest the opposite of usual meaning.
  • DRAMATIC – reader is aware of events and yet the character is not.
  • SITUATIONAL – outcome of an action or situation is different from what one expects.
the story of an hour1
The Story of an Hour
  • Involves a keen sense of irony
  • Focus on reaction Mrs. Mallard’s has about the death of husband
  • Watch for:
    • Specific details
    • Climax of story
    • Expected outcomes
    • Actual outcomes
poetry terms
Poetry Terms
  • Exact rhyme – ways and days
  • Slant rhyme – prove and love
  • End rhyme – occurs at the ends of two or more poetic lines
  • Internal rhyme – appear within a single line
  • Symbol – anything that stands for, or represents something else
  • Simile – an explicit comparison between two different things using “like” or “as”
  • Metaphor –an implied comparison made between two unlike things that actually have something in common.
douglass we wear the mask1
“Douglass” & “We Wear the Mask”
  • Storm symbolizes the turmoil & hardship they still faced.
  • Wished Douglass was still alive to guide them.
  • Dunbar suggest that the world sees African Americans only when they hide their feelings.
  • Successful American poet of the 20’s
  • Focus on people’s inner struggles
  • Mostly desperate characters who view their lives as trivial and meaningless
  • He used traditional style
  • Two poems address pain of a loss
  • Luke cannot figure how to go on without his beloved
  • Richard Cory, the town is mourning
  • Law by day, Chicago film critic
  • Abandoned conventional rhyme & meter
  • Series of poems about people in rural southern Illinois
  • Anthology consists of 244 epitaphs for characters, buried in mythical Spoon River
  • The dead ARE the speakers, reveal secrets kept hidden during their lifetime
  • Some happy, most filled with frustration and despair
  • In the two poems, two different characters and their abilities to face life in a changing world.
  • BOTH speak about their lives from the graves.