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  1. ITS at Borders and Ports Edward McCormack CEE 582

  2. Ports

  3. Port Operations • Vessel operations – movement and docking of ships on waterside • Terminal operations – load/unloading and temporary storage of cargo • Landside operations – movement of cargo in/out of port on landside • Technology can integrate these operations but there is tends to be a lack of coordination because mix of public and private functions

  4. Landside Operations • Truck dray cargo between port and rail yard, warehouse, or ultimate origin (or vice-versa) • Each port terminal has a gate and information system to tell trucker where to pickup or leave cargo in terminal • Gate also provides security • Information exchange with truckers typically by fax, teletype, or phone but electronic data Interchange (EDI)/Internet use is growing

  5. Port Gate

  6. Transportation Problem at the Ports • Urban roadways congested as truckers trying to access or leave port • Long queues at port gate as trucker try to get into terminal • Backup onto public streets

  7. Landside Access Problems • Arterials leading to port often not up to truck traffic generated by port (geometrics, RR crossings, turn lanes) • Cars and trucks do not mix well • Little public support for “more” trucks on roads • Freight (containers) is increasing concentrated on major gateway exacerbating the problem

  8. Delays at gates • Driver arrives before cargo is ready • Bad information about pickup which requires research at gate • Drivers go to wrong terminal • Proper equipment not ready • Gate hours limited • Ships getting larger so more peaking • Language problems at gate

  9. ITS and Ports • ITS can improve physical flows (trucks picking up and delivering cargo) • ITS can improve information flows between truckers, shipper, terminal, etc

  10. Fixing Landside Port Congestion • Connect trucker to information about availability of containers more efficiently • Increase throughput at port gate • Improve roadway access to ports (traveler info systems, grade separate RR crossings, truck only routes) • Keep terminals open longer

  11. Connect Truckers to Containers • California’s Port Appointment System • Law mandates a $250 fine for every truck that idles for more than 30 minutes (driven by air quality concerns) • Exemptions for terminals that provide a pickup or appointment system • eModal has set up internet based appointment system that forecast pick-up times for trucks

  12. Connect Truckers to Containers • eModal links various databases to provide notification systems when container is available • Reduce queues and increase trucker’s efficiency • Private fee based system

  13. Connect Truckers to Containers in Port • Provide in-port information to direct trucks to container in terminals • Using a combination of • GPS on chassis and yard trucks • wireless networks • Transponders on equipment • Software • Also used for asset management

  14. Connect Truckers to Containers • Freight Information Real Time System for Transport (FIRST) in NY • Web site to integrates freight information systems to provide real-time information to drayage truckers • Provides water, port, highway information to registered users • Poor coordination between public and private agencies • So not well used

  15. Increase throughput at gates • Validate driver and vehicle • Use biometrics • Smart cards • Electronic cargo identification (transponders) • Optical character recognition for container number • Replace paper transactions with electronics • A smart Transportation Worker Identification Card (TWIC) may be required by Homeland Security

  16. Improve Roadway Access to Ports • Port typically have had little concern beyond gates • ITS systems can provide traffic and incident information on port access roads • Cameras at port gates

  17. ATMIS in California • Ports of LA and Long Beach has Advanced Transportation Management, Information, and Security Systems (ATMIS) • Traffic component includes: • Cameras • Port gate queue detection • VMS • Link to other traffic management centers • Communication network • Truck-oriented traveler information

  18. ATMIS

  19. Challenges: Drayage Truckers • Owner-operator is most common drayage trucker at ports • Low income so they can not afford expensive equipment • Truck parking in insecure locations so ITS equipment theft can be problems • Drivers paid by trip so competition to get through gate

  20. Challenges • Data sharing systems requires public - private cooperation • Port and terminal operators are competitive with proprietary data systems • Port access roads often arterials and often not instrumented • Who pays for these systems?

  21. Borders and ITS

  22. National Borders Problem Context • Primary Border Function • Ensure That Only Permitted Persons and Goods Enter the Country • Inspection Process Results In Congestion • ITS Solution Sets • Provide Traveler Information • Improve Processing Time Source: Bart Cima IBI

  23. Border Data • Freight (much of the paper work is handled by brokers) • Tariffs • Quotas • Bills of lading/manifests • Produce control (such as drug interdiction) • Currency law • People (held by each individual traveler) • Nationality • Health • Employment status • Time in or out of county • Permission to enter or stay in country • Political status • Criminal record

  24. Customs and Border Protection Immigration Cargo Agriculture DEA Fish and Wildlife U.S. Marshals ATF Coast Guard Border station “owned” by Government Services Agency Many Agencies Involved in Border Operations

  25. Complex Environment Source: WCOG

  26. Freight at the Border Post 9-11 • Emphasis on security • Customs went from revenue collection to a security agency • Increasing reliance on pre-clearance of known shippers and closer scrutiny of chains of custody • Increasing use of ITS and other technologies to verify cargo, vehicle, driver

  27. Smart Border Accord & Technology • In 2002, US and Canada agreed to sort out border issues • 30 point accord heavy on technology including ITS • But technology alone does not make the border smart • It can enhance security • by reducing identity fraud • by help to sort and analyze traveler information • And can improve traffic flow • by linking data and pre-clearing travelers / cargo • by managing congestion

  28. Washington - British Columbia Region

  29. Washington Borders • Four Crossings at Wash./B.C. border • Two can be used by trucks • Operates as a system

  30. And the Washington/B.C. Border has a Congestion Problem • 4th busiest commercial crossing on border • 1 million trucks crossed in 2002 • 7 million cars crossed in 2002 • Delay costs millions per year • Traffic has doubled since 1991 but staffing has not

  31. ITS Solutions – Border Crossing Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS)

  32. Background Traveler Information Needs: • Pre-trip planning information • Advance notification of crossing wait times Source: Bart Cima IBI

  33. Pre-Trip Information • Traffic Cameras • Historical Wait Time Data • Customs Reports

  34. 99 Peace Arch or Pacific Highway? ? SURREY, BC Pacific Highway Peace Arch , WA ? Source: WCOG

  35. The ATIS Solution PA….25 minPH….37 min NB: Save 45 minutes at Pac Hwy.SB: Save 8 minutes at Peace Arch. SURREY, BC Pacific Highway Peace Arch , WA PA….55 minPH….10 min Source: WCOG

  36. British Columbia Southbound ATIS Project • Funds From Both Countries • Measures Real-time Border Crossing Times • Captures Video Images • Message Signs, Telephone, & Internet

  37. Southbound ATIS

  38. Northbound ATIS • Developed by WSDOT • Project includes: • Web Site • Traffic Cameras • Highway Advisory Radio • Loop Detectors • Border Agencies Interested in Data • Including Access to CCTV Cameras

  39. Northbound ATIS

  40. Improving Processing Time

  41. ITS Approaches to Improve Processing Time • Identification of lower-risk vehicles and shipments • Make the data exchanges electronic (reduce paper transactions) • Use inspection technology

  42. ITS Solutions for Passenger Vehicles

  43. License Plate Readers • Electronic identification of license plates • Automatic link to law enforcement databases • Helps identify of vehicles of interest

  44. License Plate Readers • Uses optical character recognition and works at night • Have difficulty reading some state’s plates, some fonts, and in some weather conditions • Border traffic is slow speed so system works well • Needs to tied to a database

  45. NEXUS Program • Passenger vehicles • Smart card-based, bi-national travel program • Pre-approved travelers can skip queues and access a dedicated commuter lane 1-866-NEXUS26

  46. Nexus Card • Cost $50 (US) for approved individuals • Proximity-based radio frequency card with chip and antenna • Reader next to inspection booth • Displays data and digital photo inside booth

  47. Solutions for Freight Movement

  48. The Trade Flow Source: Bart Cima IBI

  49. Electronic Filing US Now Requires One Hour Notification Source: Bart Cima IBI