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Auckland Solar Home AND TRANSPORT

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  1. Auckland SolarHome AND TRANSPORT Building Design House Design

  2. Content outline • Why use solar energy and where is the money • What is solar cooling: liquid desiccant dehumidification • History, modern technology and design for NZ • Principle • Design • Operation • People • Solar home and solar transport photos album

  3. WHY USE SOLAR energy • Free Power • Free Heating • Free Cooling • Free Hot Water

  4. Solar air conditioning SCIENTIST ENGINEER SOLAR ELECTRICITY

  5. WHERE IS THE Money • Simple calculation by using times, division, addition and minus • Plan A: NZ Home, 1.5 billion dollars saving every year use solar • Plan B: Auckland Bicycle, 1 billion dollars patrol saving every year • Plan C: Non Driver Bus, 1 billion dollars wages saving every year • Plan D: NZ Bus, 250 million dollars saving every year • Total saving: $3.75 billion every year • I can save more than this money!

  6. Building energy Cost • Saving cost, Saving money

  7. TRANSPORT FUEL COST • 4,300,000 population, 3,087,400 vehicle • Every vehicle cost patrol $10 dollars per week assumption • $1.6 billion dollars on the patrol every year

  8. PLAN A: 1.5 billion dollars every year • NZ: 4,300,000 people, 1,000,000 home • $20 per month hot water shower bill per person • Total cost: $20 ×4,300,000×12=$1,032,000,000 every year • LED bulb: 50W bulb can be changed to 3W LED Bulb • Total saving: 50 × 3×1,000,000 ×4×365×$0.2/1000 × ( 1 + 10) = $482 million • This can be saved by using free solar energy: 1.032+0.482 = 1.514 billion

  9. PLAN B:1 Billion dollars every year • $1.6 billion dollars patrol can be saved to $1 billion dollars • Danmark: 5,000,000 people, 4,000,000 million bicycles • Auckland: 1,400,000n people, 1,000,000 bicycles • 20 dollars patrol saving by using bicycle every week • 1,000,000×20 ×52 = $1 billion dollars every year can be saved • There is no congestion in NZ • People will more healthy by exercise and clean air

  10. PLAN C: 1 billion dollars every year • 50 millions NZBUS movement every year • 1 hour every movement assumption • 20 dollars per hour average wages • 50 ×20= $1 billions dollars wages every year • It can be saved by using non driver buses

  11. PLAN D: 250 million dollars every year • 10 bus running: 9 bus empty • 50 millions NZBUS movement every year • 4 liters diesel per movement assumption • 1.5 dollars per liter diesel • 50×4×1.5 = $300 millions dollars fuel every year • Small bus plus Energy saving bus only use $50 millions dollars fuel every year • $300 - $50 = $250 millions dollars can be saved every year

  12. Future home • No power bill • No water bill • No car fuel bill • Sunny room • Bicycle

  13. Building design • Solar Air Conditioning System • Solar Hot Water System • Solar Power LED Lighting • Solar Power Home Appliance • Solar Power Recharged Bicycle • Sunny Balcony

  14. HOUSE DESIGN • Solar Air Conditioning • Solar Hot Water • Solar Power LED lighting • Solar Power Home Appliance • Solar Power Recharge Vehicle • Sunny Room

  15. FUTURE TRANSPORT • Small size bus • Electrical Vehicle • Electrical Bicycle • Recharge Car Station • Recharge Bus Station • Recharge at home by solar power

  16. Auckland unitary plan • Solar show house in Onehunga • Solar show building in Newmarket: the University of Auckland • LED show walk way in Ponsonby Park • Single route show bicycle way with solar recharge station from Onehunga to Newmarket • Small bus running show route: Dominion road

  17. auCKLAND UNITARY PLAN • CBD to Airport train ? No, CBD to Airport non driver bus plan and bicycle bridge plan and non-driver bus plan ! • Beautiful way (visionibility, Three-dimensional transport) • Economic way (cheap and quality design) • People first choice (safe, fast, healthy, anti-rain, non-congestion, environment friendly, non fuel cost) • Don’t damage the property (bridge along the current road)

  18. air conditioning

  19. SOLAR COOLING

  20. Liquid Desiccant Advantages • Smaller air pressure drop: Cheap running fee • Pump: Suit large building • Tank: Suit solar energy

  21. Liquid desiccant history • Liquid desiccant dehumidification technology has been commercially available since 1935. • The latest commercial liquid desiccant dehumidifiers are supplied by Niagara Blower Company (Kathabar dehumidification systems), DuCool company (DuTreat, DuHandling, DuHybrid Series), L-DCS Technology Pte Ltd (200kW dehumidifier). • Most of these systems use LiCl as liquid desiccant. KathabarKalsorb system use CaCl2 as liquid desiccant.

  22. UsaKathabar product • Simultaneous Dehumidification and Direct Air Cooling • Energy Savings • Microbiological Decontamination • Performance Reliability • Precise Humidity Control (+/- 1%RH) • Frost Free Cooling • Design Flexibility • Humidification

  23. Usakathabar product

  24. Global ducool product • Ducool product delivers energy savings of 30 to 80 percent in commercial and industrial applications • India, China, Taiwan, Israel, Singapore, Latin America • Company name as AdvantixSystems: a global leader in humidity and climate control

  25. Global ducool product

  26. GLOBAL DUCOOL PRODUCT AHR EXPO: Innovation award winner

  27. AHR EXPO: Innovation award winner

  28. GERMANY L-dcs product

  29. Germany L-dcs product

  30. DESIGN FOR NZ • Lord of the Ring • Volcanicpeaks, rolling pastures, lush forests and icy glaciers • Milford Sound is one of New Zealand’s most popular tourist destinations and also long considered the country’s officially wettest location. • However, portions of the western Fiordland and Westland of the Southern Alps are estimated to be the wetteston earth.

  31. Humid nz

  32. House desing for nz

  33. HOME IMPROVEMENT

  34. Conventional VCS • Challenge to the tradition, that’s the secret to be the leader • Conventional vapour compression air conditioning systems (VCS) cool the air below its dew point to condensate the water vapour in the air, followed by reheating of the air to a comfortable temperature. • Liquid desiccant cooling system: The pre-cooled desiccant system can not only dehumidify plant air, but also can cool the plant air

  35. Principle

  36. DUCOOL WEBSITE

  37. structure

  38. DESICCANT SOLUTION • LiCl, TEG and CaCl2 • Lithium chloride: expensive, stable, regeneration at 80 ºC, corrosive, high performance dehumidification, plastic storage • Calcium chloride solution: cheap, unstable, cheap storage, regeneration at 60 ºC, corrosive, plastic storage • TEG: earliest, evaporate, regeneration at 65 ºC to 80 ºC • Mixture of LiCl and CaCl2: higher performance

  39. Driving force • vapour pressure difference between the gaseous air and the liquid desiccant • When the air vapour pressure is higher than the liquid vapour pressure, dehumidification takes place • When the air vapour pressure is lower than the liquid vapour pressure, regeneration occurs. • The capacity of the water vapour removal rate can be determined by the vapour pressure of the liquid desiccant

  40. Coupled heat and mass transfer • Mass transfer and heat transfer • The heat transfer process involves the temperature difference and absorption heat released • condensation of vapourand the heat of mixing • The heat from the air and absorption raises the solution vapour pressure. This reduces the capability of the desiccant to absorb more vapour • As heat is transferred away from the surface, the liquid desiccant becomes capable of absorbing additional vapour

  41. structured packing BED • Cooling tower • Evaporative cooler • Dehumidifier • Regenerator

  42. Dehumidifer

  43. Counter flow with internal cooling

  44. Spray nozzle

  45. Carryover

  46. operation • liquid to air mass flow mass rate ratios: optimum L/G • Maximum wettingof the packing and ensure the desiccant temperature does not increase significantly • Uniformly distributed • Fan size and pump size • Regeneration temperature

  47. OPERATION • Energy storage: solar energy battery • Concentrated desiccant can be stored in uninsulated plastic tanks with no loss in cooling potential over time • match cooling loads with the availability of solar energy • The concentrated salt solution can also be transportedover long distances without losing any of its air dehumidification ability • solar panels produce three times more energy than required for air dehumidification on clear days

  48. OPERATION • Pressure drop knowledge • Pump and fan size • The optimal analysis is to attempt to decrease the pressure drop and improve the heat and mass transfer performances while minimizing the initial cost e.g. packing volume

  49. The Auckland of University: Lab • Thermodynamic Lab • Aerodynamic Lab

  50. Experiment result