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Hydrogen Fuel Cell. Trends in the Use of Fuel. 19 th century: steam engine. 20 th century: internal combustion engine. 21 st century: fuel cells. The History of Fuel Cells. Electrolyser. Grove’s Gas Battery. (first fuel cell, 1839). (after Larminie and Dicks, 2000).

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

19th century:

steam engine

20th century:

internal combustion engine

21st century: fuel cells

slide4

The History of Fuel Cells

Electrolyser

Grove’s Gas Battery

(first fuel cell, 1839)

(after Larminie and Dicks, 2000)

slide5

Photo courtesy of University of Cambridge

Bacon’s laboratory in 1955

slide6

Photo courtesy of NASA

NASA Space Shuttle fuel cell

slide7

Applications for Fuel Cells

Transportation vehicles

Photo courtesy of DaimlerChrysler

NECAR 5

slide8

Applications for Fuel Cells

Distributed power stations

Photo courtesy of Ballard Power Systems

250 kW distributed cogeneration power plant

slide9

Applications for Fuel Cells

Home power

Photo courtesy of Plug Power

7 kW home cogeneration power plant

slide10

Applications for Fuel Cells

Portable power

50 W portable fuel cell with metal hydride storage

slide11

The Science of Fuel Cells

Alkaline(AFC)

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

(PEMFC)

Phosphoric Acid(PAFC)

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane(PEMFC)

Types of Fuel Cells

Molten Carbonate(MCFC)

Direct Methanol

(DMFC)

Direct Methanol(DMFC)

Solid Oxide(SOFC)

Solid Oxide

(SOFC)

slide12

PEM Fuel Cell Electrochemical Reactions

Anode:

H2 2H+ + 2e- (oxidation)

Cathode:

1/2 O2 + 2e- + 2H+ H2O (l) (reduction)

Overall Reaction:

H2 + 1/2 02 H2O (l)

ΔH = - 285.8 kJ/mole

slide13

A Simple PEM Fuel Cell

Hydrogen + Oxygen  Electricity + Water

Water

slide14

Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

C

a

t

a

l

y

s

i

s

Oxidation

-

4

e

Platinum-

catalyst

T

r

a

n

s

p

o

r

t

H

2

2

H

+

2

4

H

R

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

N

a

f

i

o

n

O

2

H

O

2

Reduction

Platinum-

catalyst

+

H

Anode

K

Cathode

-

-

4

4

e

e

O

O

Polymer

electrolyte

(i.e. Nafion)

2

2

N

a

f

i

o

n

+

+

Carbon cloth

Carbon cloth

4

4

H

H

2

2

H

H

O

O

2

2

N

N

a

a

f

f

i

i

o

o

n

n

2

slide15

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) chains

Water collects around the clusters of hydrophylic sulphonate side chains

Sulphonic Acid

50-175 microns

(2-7 sheets of paper)

(after Larminie and Dicks, 2000)

slide16

Thermodynamics of PEM Fuel Cells

Change in enthalpy (ΔH) = - 285,800 J/mole

Gibb’s free energy (ΔG) = ΔH - TΔS

ΔG at 25° C: = - 285,800 J - (298K)(-163.2J/K)

= - 237,200 J

Ideal cell voltage (Δ E) = - ΔG/(nF)

ΔE at 25º C = - [-237,200 J/((2)(96,487 J/V))]

= 1.23 V

ΔG at operating temperature (80º C): = - 285,800 J - (353K)(163.2 J/K)

= - 228,200 J

ΔE at 80º C = - [-228,200 J/((2)(96,487 J/V))]

= 1.18 V

slide17

Characteristic Curve

Power Curve

activation losses + internal currents

1.2

MPP

2.5

ohmic losses

1

x

concentration losses

2

0.8

1.5

P

V

0.6

1

0.4

0.5

0.2

0

0

0

1

2

3

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

I

I

  • Factors Affecting Curve:
    • activation losses
    • fuel crossover and internal currents
    • ohmic losses
    • mass transport or concentration losses

Max Power Point (MPP):

slide18

Hydrogen Storage

56 L

14 L

9.9 L

Compressed gas (200 bar)

Liquid hydrogen

MgH2metal hydride

Liters to store 1 kg hydrogen

slide19

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

Fuel tank

Reformer

Hydrogen bottles

Hydrogen bottles

Hydrogen bottles

Electrolyser

Solar panel

Algae

Hydrogen: Energy Forever

slide20

Renewable Energy Sources

As long as the sun shines, the wind blows, or the rivers flow, there can be clean, safe, and sustainable electrical power, where and when required, with a solar hydrogen energy system

slide21

The Benefits of Fuel Cells

Clean

Modular

Quiet

Benefits of Fuel Cells

Safe

Sustainable

Efficient

slide22

Our Fragile Planet.

We have the responsibility to mind the planet so that the extraordinary natural beauty of the Earth is preserved for generations to come.

Heliocentris: Science education through fuel cells 22

Photo courtesy of NASA