analytic philosophy n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Analytic Philosophy PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Analytic Philosophy

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

Analytic Philosophy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 277 Views
  • Uploaded on

Analytic Philosophy. Introduction and a Brief History H.E. Baber. Analytic Philosophy.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Analytic Philosophy' - alphonse


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
analytic philosophy

Analytic Philosophy

Introduction and a Brief History

H.E. Baber

analytic philosophy1
Analytic Philosophy
  • Analytic philosophy is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. In the United States the overwhelming majority of university philosophy departments self-identify as "analytic" departments. This situation is mirrored in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. [Wikipedia—but if you don’t trust Wikipedia…]
  • Brian Leiter, the “philosophical gourmet,” notes: "All the Ivy League universities, all the leading state research universities, all the University of California campuses, most of the top liberal arts colleges, most of the flagship campuses of the second-tier state research universities boast philosophy departments that overwhelmingly self-identify as "analytic": it is hard to imagine a "movement" that is more academically and professionally entrenched than analytic philosophy.”
  • See also John Searle's judgment (in Bunnin & Tsui-James (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy (Blackwell, 2003), p. 1): "Without exception, the best philosophy departments in the United States are dominated by analytic philosophy, and among the leading philosophers in the United States, all but a tiny handful would be classified as analytic philosophers."
a history of philosophy

A History of Philosophy

The Analytic Philosopher’s Version

western philosophy timeline
Western Philosophy Timeline

Continental Philosophy

Hellenistic/

Medieval

Rationalists

Empiricists

Kant

Ancient

Plotinus

Augustine

Anselm

Abelard

Aquinas

Ockham

Descartes

Leibniz

Spinoza

Locke

Berkeley

Hume

Kant

Plato

Aristotle

Analytic Philosophy

Our Esteemed Ancestors

Our esteemed ancestors

anglo american philosophy
Anglo-American Philosophy

Continental Philosophy

British Idealists

Empiricists

Locke

Berkeley

Hume

Analytic Philosophy

Early 20th Century

Rejection of Idealism

(Defense of Commonsense)

Logical Atomism

Logical Positivism

Ordinary Language Philosophy

Contemporary Analytic Philosophy

subfields of philosophy
Subfields of Philosophy

Traditional Subfields

Logic

Ethics

Metaphysics

Epistemology

History of Philosophy

Additional Special Fields

Philosophy of Mind

Philosophy of Religion

Philosophy of Science

“Applied Ethics” specialties

Aesthetics

Philosophy of Language

our philosophical issues
Our Philosophical Issues

Skepticism and the External World

Meaning and Reference

The Logical Positivist Program

The Mind-Body Problem

The Problem of Universals

Externalism and the mental

Identity (including personal identity)

Time and time-travel

the external world
The External World

Epistemological, metaphysical questions and philosophy of language issues.

Do we know there’s an external world? If so, how?

What are the constituents of this external world?

How should we analyze talk about these things?

the epistemological question
The Epistemological Question

External world: mind-independent objects

Immediate experience and inference (I hear a screeching when I step on the brakes and infer that the pads are worn and metal is grinding on metal. Sight is no different.

Veridical and non-veridical experience

Do we have any good reason to believe that any of our experiences are veridical? How could we know?

thought experiments
Thought Experiments
  • We want to know what is logically (or metaphysically) possible
    • E.g. Is it possible for persons to “exchange bodies”? Survive bodily death? Reappear in resurrection worlds? Be reincarnated?
  • Conceivability is (roughly) a criterion for logical possibility so…
  • We produce and consider thought experiments to ascertain what is conceivable.
  • These thought experiments—stories about zombies, transport via Startrek Machine, Brains in Vats and life in the Matrix, apparent cases of body-exchange, etc. are fictions intended to pump our intuitions.
the mind body problem
The Mind-Body Problem

Zombies: physical duplicates of “normal” humans who do not have qualia.

Qualia: contents of immediate experience, “raw feels” or “sense-data”

The Mind-Body Problem (crude version): is the mind the brain? (or, are mental states just brain states?)

Conceivability as a criterion for (“logical”) possibility

zombies and mind body dualism
Zombies and Mind-Body Dualism

Zombies are logically possible (we can conceive of them, right?)

A zombie’s brain states are perfect duplicates of the brain states of normal individuals experiencing qualia

There must be something more then that brain state when an individual has qualia

The mind is not just the brain (mental states are not just brain states)

more mind body problem
More Mind-Body Problem

The Knowledge Argument, Reversed Spectrum, etc.

Can machines think? The Turing Test and Searle’s Chinese Room

Are meanings in the head? Hilary Putnam and the Twin Earth problem

the problem of universals
The Problem of Universals
  • Statements of the form “x is P” can be true or false.
  • Intuitively, what makes them true or false is an object’s having a property
  • Intuitively, when objects are similar it is because they “share” properties
  • But are there “properties” and, if so, what are they? And how can they be shared?
all standard solutions are unintuitive
All standard solutions are unintuitive!
  • Nominalism makes it difficult to account for the fact that some ways of grouping are correct while others incorrect.
  • Conceptualism begs the question: What is it in the object that corresponds to my idea and what is that correspondance? What makes my idea of red the same as your idea?
  • Realism posits crazy, immaterial objects
reference
Reference
  • Plato’s question: “how can I think the thing that is not?”
  • Fictional entities: What makes it true that Pegasus is a flying horse--and not a unicorn or magic mushroom? What makes it true that Pegasus doesn’t exist?
  • Again, construing Pegasus, et. al. as “ideas” doesn’t help so we seem stuck with the existence of crazy, non-existant objects.
  • Russell’s theory of descriptions & the Russell-Strawson debate.
logical positivism
Logical Positivism
  • Metaphilosophical issues: Hume’s Fork and the rejection of “metaphysics”
  • Hume’s Fork and the Analytic/Synthetic distinction
  • Phenomenalism: objects as “permanent possibilities of sensation”
  • Quine’s “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”
identity
Identity
  • An equivalence relation
    • Reflexivity: x = x
    • Symmetry: if x = y then y = x
    • Transitivity: if x = y and y = z then x = z
  • An indiscernibility relation: if x = y then they have all the same properties
  • Is the converse true also, i.e. if x and y have all the same properties does x = y?
identity puzzles
Identity Puzzles
  • Indiscernibility of Identicals and Frege’s puzzle
  • Identity of Indiscernibles, symmetrical worlds (“Black’s Balls”) and Eternal Return
  • “Branching Cases”: the Ship of Theseus, etc.
  • Personal identity: Locke’s identity problem, survival, “fission,” etc.
and now for some solutions
And now for some solutions…
  • …none of which are conclusive!