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Work of Gregor Mendel. Section 11-1 Pages 263-266 Standard IV Objective 2a: Explain Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment and their role in genetic inheritance. Genetics Vocabulary. Trait: specific characteristic Gene:

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work of gregor mendel

Work of Gregor Mendel

Section 11-1

Pages 263-266

Standard IV Objective 2a: Explain Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment and their role in genetic inheritance.

genetics vocabulary
Genetics Vocabulary
  • Trait:
  • specific characteristic
  • Gene:
  • sequence of DNA that codes for a protein thus determining a trait
  • Alleles:
  • different forms of a gene
gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel
  • Gregor Mendel—father of genetics
  • Conducted his work in the garden

of a monastery—changed biology forever

  • Worked with true

breeding pea plants

  • True breeding—produce

identical offspring if

allowed to self-pollinate

  • He looked at 7 different

traits

alleles
Alleles
  • Where do living organisms get alleles from?
  • Organisms receive one allele for each trait from each parent.
  • Principle of Dominance: some alleles are dominant and other are recessive
  • If a dominant allele is present, the organism will take on the characteristic of the dominant allele.
  • PTC paper
alleles1
Alleles
  • Representing different alleles
    • T (capital letter) = dominant trait
    • t (lower case) = recessive trait
  • For each trait there are two alleles (one from each parent)
  • Example: Plant height
    • TT and Tt
    • tt
probability
Probability
  • Principle of Probability: used to predict outcomes of genetic crosses
  • Homozygous – 2 identical alleles
    • Homozygous dominant (TT)
    • Homozygous recessive (tt)
  • Heterozygous – 2 different alleles (Tt)
mendel s crosses
Mendel’s Crosses
  • Original pair of plants—P (parental) generation
  • The offspring of the P generation are called the F1 generation
  • Hybrid—the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
genetic vocabulary
Genetic Vocabulary
  • Heterozygous—organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait
  • Homozygous—organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait
  • Genotype—genetic makeup
    • Heterozygous (Tt)
    • Homozygous (TT) or (tt)
  • Phenotype—physical characteristics
    • Plant is tall or Plant is short
mendel s crosses1
Mendel’s Crosses
  • He took pure breeding tall plants (TT) and crossed them with pure breeding short plants (tt).
    • What is the result of the crosses? Do a Punnett square to show the result.
    • What is the genotype and phenotype for each of the plants?
  • Next step: He took two plant from the previous cross and bred them.
    • What is the result? What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes? Show with a punnett square.
practice
Practice
  • Dad is heterozygous for a particular trait
  • Mom is homozygous recessive for the same trait
  • How do we predict outcomes?
picture credits
Picture Credits
  • http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/nirenberg/images/photos/01_mendel_pu.jpg
  • http://www.jbhs.k12.nf.ca/biology/photos/jillear2.jpg
  • http://sdmc.lit.org.sg/gedm/imageANDdata/gene.gif
  • http://www.naturalselectionreptiles.com/Genetics/allele.jpg
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/img/bipeas.gif
  • http://psychservices.ucsd.edu/resources_parents_web/resources_parents_images/resources_parents_help.jpg
  • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://i21.photobucket.com/albums/b268/plopperscioly/punnettsquare.jpg&imgrefurl=http://
  • http://stavos.homeip.net/detroitarchive/uploadcenter/images/tigon.jpg
  • http://cricket.biol.sc.edu/herb/CC/Centrosema_virginianum2.jpg
  • http://users.adelphia.net/~lubehawk/BioHELP!/psquare0.jpg