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Georgia and the American Experience. Chapter 13: Peace, Prosperity, and Peril Study Presentation . ©2005 Clairmont Press. Georgia and the American Experience. Section 1: The 1980s Section 2: The 1990s Section 3: Terrorism at Home and Abroad Section 4: Georgia in a New Century.

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georgia and the american experience
Georgia and the American Experience

Chapter 13:

Peace, Prosperity, and Peril

Study Presentation

©2005 Clairmont Press

georgia and the american experience1
Georgia and the American Experience

Section 1: The 1980s

Section 2: The 1990s

Section 3: Terrorism at Home and Abroad

Section 4: Georgia in a New Century

©2005 Clairmont Press

section 1 the 1980s
Section 1: The 1980s
    • How did Georgia change during the 1980s?
section 1 the 1980s1
Section 1: The 1980s
  • What words do I needtoknow?
    • telecommute
    • email
    • Reaganomics
    • Quality Basic Education
    • Per capita income
  • The age of the personal computer
  • email: sending messages by computer
  • telecommute: work at home while keeping in touch with the office by computer
  • Schools began to purchase computers
  • Other technology: ATMs, FAX machines, cellular phones, Internet, scanners
  • More television channels added with cable and satellite service
the end of the cold war
The End of the Cold War
  • Ronald Reagan: “Great Communicator” elected president – served 1981-1989
  • Reaganomics: “supply-side” economics, tax cuts, heavy defense spending, limited government, limited regulation on business
  • Reagan tough with USSR
  • By end of 1980s, Cold War ending
  • Mikhail Gorbachev: leader of USSR
  • 1989: Berlin Wall came down
  • 1991: Communist USSR government collapsed
georgia during the 1980s
Georgia During the 1980s
  • Governors
    • George Busbee: 1975-1983 – foreign investment increased; expanded Department of Industry and Trade; expanded ports and highway system
    • Joe Frank Harris: 1983-1991 – brought over 850,000 jobs; Georgia Dome; World Congress Center expansion
  • Educational Improvements
    • Full-day kindergarten; increased teachers’ salaries; testing of teachers; QBE (Quality Basic Education) standard curriculum
  • Georgia Gets a New Constitution
    • Adopted 1982 after 5 years work to shorten it
the two georgia debate continues
The Two-Georgia Debate Continues
  • Population of Georgia grew in 1980s
  • People moved to Georgia for mild climate, low taxes, low fuel costs, land, and non-union workers
  • Georgia now one of the fastest growing states
  • Two Georgias:
    • Atlanta: fast growing and prosperous, generating most taxes, expanding business
    • Rural: declining population, more poverty, higher unemployment, young people moved to urban areas

Click to return to Table of Contents.

section 2 the 1990s
Section 2: The 1990s
    • How did Georgia change economically and politically in the 1990s?
section 2 the 1990s1
Section 2: The 1990s
  • What words do I need to know?
    • downsizing
    • bankruptcy
    • HOPE scholarship program
    • infrastructure
the 1990s
The 1990s
  • recession: economic slowdown; decreased demand for products and services, increased unemployment, decreased wages
  • downsizing: companies’ reaction to recession – firing workers to cut costs
  • When workers don’t have jobs, they don’t spend money, causing greater recession
  • Many Georgians filed for bankruptcy protection because they had borrowed more money on credit than they could pay back
the persian gulf war
The Persian Gulf War
  • August 1990: Iraq (led by Saddam Hussein) invaded Kuwait
  • President George Herbert Walker Bush joined Operation Desert Shield and later Desert Storm to free Kuwait from Saddam Hussein
  • January 16, 1991: US and allies began bombing Iraq
  • March 3, 1991: Iraq accepts terms of cease fire and begins to leave Kuwait
  • Ecological disaster left behind: oil fires, 10 million gallons of oil dumped in Persian Gulf
political changes in a conservative south
Political Changes in a Conservative South
  • Conservative voters elected conservative Democrats and Republicans
  • In 1980, Mack Mattingly was first Republican US Senator since Reconstruction – by 1992, most were Republicans
  • Cynthia McKinney: Democrat, first black woman elected from Georgia to Congress
  • John Lewis: Democrat, civil rights leader, senior member of Georgia’s congressional delegation
political changes in a conservative south1
Political Changes in a Conservative South
  • Newt Gingrich: Republican, became Speaker of the US House in 1994, “Contract with America” promised to reduce size of government, resigned in 1998 after poor election results for Republicans
  • Sam Nunn: Democrat, served as US Senator 1972-1996, expert on military affairs
  • Zell Miller: Democrat, Lt. Governor then Governor (1990-1999), known for educational improvements, “boot-camp” style prisons, state lottery for education – pre-Kindergarten, HOPE scholarships, promoted growth in North Georgia, became US Senator from Georgia
georgia hosts the olympics
Georgia Hosts the Olympics
  • Summer 1996: Atlanta hosted XXVI Olympiad
  • 10,000 athletes from 197 countries
  • 90,000 volunteers in Atlanta and other Georgia cities and locations
  • Brought international attention to the city and state
  • July 29, 1996: Bomb in Olympic Park killed one visitor and injured 117
  • Traffic problems brought much criticism
  • Too many street vendors and commercialism were other concerns
  • “Southern hospitality” and athletic competition were noteworthy

Click to return to Table of Contents.

section 3 terrorism at home and abroad
Section 3: Terrorism at Home and Abroad
    • How did the acts of terrorists change Georgia?
section 3 terrorism at home and abroad1
Section 3: Terrorism at Home and Abroad
  • What words do I need to know?
    • terrorism
    • al-Qaeda
terrorism at home and abroad
Terrorism at Home and Abroad
  • terrorism: acts of violence aimed at demoralizing or intimidating others
  • 1993: bomb at World Trade Center garage in New York City
  • 1995: Oklahoma City Murrah Federal Building – car bomb kills 168 people
  • 1998: US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania bombed killing hundreds, injuring thousands – attacks linked to al-Qaeda
  • al-Qaeda: Islamic terrorist group led by Osama bin Laden – wealthy Saudi Arabian terrorist
  • 2000: USS Cole attacked
  • 2001: George W. Bush becomes president
the day that changed america
“The Day That Changed America”
  • September 11, 2001: Islamic terrorists hijack US passenger planes and crash them into the World Trade Center and Pentagon
  • One additional plane (United flight 93) was re-taken by passengers but crashed in Pennsylvania
  • WTC towers collapse killing 2,774
operation enduring freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
  • al-Qaeda linked to the September 11 attacks – based in Afghanistan
  • October 2001: Operation Enduring Freedom – US and other nations’ troops invade Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaeda camps and destroy Taliban government
  • Osama bin Laden escaped
  • Department of Homeland Security created to work to protect Americans at home
operation iraqi freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • Saddam Hussein in Iraq continued to violate UN resolutions regarding weapons of mass destruction and inspections
  • March 19, 2003: US and coalition forces attack Iraq – combat phase over by May
  • US troops continued to work in Iraq for over two years
  • Saddam Hussein captured
  • Weapons of mass destruction were not found
a touch of home
A Touch of Home
  • Officers in Iraq told not to raise the US flag since the Iraqis were not defeated – only their dictator defeated
  • April 2003 – Georgia troops in Iraq make the news raising flag of the University of Georgia Bulldogs!

Click to return to Table of Contents.

section 4 georgia in a new century
Section 4: Georgia in a New Century
    • What important issues face Georgians in the 21st century?
section 4 georgia in a new century1
Section 4: Georgia in a New Century
  • What words do I need to know?
    • Georgia Regional Transportation Authority
roy e barnes
Roy E. Barnes
  • 1999: Roy Barnes, Democrat, becomes governor
  • Served 24 years in legislature
  • Costliest campaign for governor in GA history
  • Worked to change the state flag, reform education, and build transportation projects such as the Northern Arc
the state flag issue
The State Flag Issue
  • 1956: Georgia flag changed to incorporate the St. Andrew’s cross, a Confederate battle emblem
  • Some African Americans were offended as were some modern leaders – concerned the flag focused on slavery and the past
  • Governor Barnes led effort to have flag changed
  • New flag approved in 2001 but was unpopular
  • The flag controversy was one factor in Barnes losing his re-election bid for governor
  • 2003: Governor Sonny Purdue signed bill creating new Georgia flag
highway issues
Highway Issues
  • Pollution and traffic congestion in Atlanta were problems
  • Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA) created by Gov. Barnes to address traffic problems
  • Auto pollution (emissions) were reduced
  • Plans for 59-mile Northern Arc north of Atlanta were put on hold by Gov. Barnes and abandoned by Gov. Purdue
education reform
Education Reform
  • Barnes began reduction of class sizes in lower grades, a building and renovation program for schools, and addition of school nurses
  • Student achievement did not improve greatly
  • Barnes was not re-elected and many of his reforms did not continue
georgia elects republican governor
Georgia Elects Republican Governor
  • Sonny Purdue, Republican, elected in 2002
  • First Republican governor in Georgia in 130 years
  • Georgia legislature had Democratic majority until 2004
  • Georgians elected Republicans to the US Senate and most of US House of Representatives
  • Voters gave Georgia a two-party system
challenges for the future
Challenges for the Future
  • Three main challenges:
    • water resources
    • differences between urban and rural Georgia
    • tremendous population growth
  • Alabama, Florida and US government have demanded Georgia reduce water use and pollution
  • Difficult to fund services such as schools in rural areas
  • 8 million people live in Georgia – large increase puts demands on environment

Click to return to Table of Contents.