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CMMI (Capability Maturity Model–Integrated) Overview. Dan Weinberger Mgr., Software Process Engineering iDEN Systems Division, Motorola Inc. Prof. Paul Rogoway , Judea and Samaria University and Consultant to Motorola Corporate Quality. What we will Discuss.

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cmmi capability maturity model integrated overview

CMMI (Capability Maturity Model–Integrated)Overview

Dan Weinberger

Mgr., Software Process Engineering

iDEN Systems Division, Motorola Inc.

Prof. Paul Rogoway, Judea and Samaria University and Consultant to Motorola Corporate Quality

what we will discuss
What we will Discuss
  • CMMI – why, provenance, releases
  • Terminology shifts from CMM
  • How is the CMMI different from CMM
  • Maturity Level definition has changed
  • Level by Level content changes
  • Process Area structure
  • Summary

In a hurry? – see pp. 29-30 & 34

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

motivation requirements

CMMI Background 1 of 4

Motivation/requirements
  • Integrate the many CMMs: software, systems engineering, integrated product [and process] development,SW acquisition,people
  • Integrate the assessment process
  • Strengthen process areas at higher maturity levels
  • Strengthen link of model to business results
  • Add benefit from SPI experience over many years
  • Harmonize with international process standards, e.g. ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE)
  • Respond to specific change requests

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

who whence what

CMMI Background 2 of 4

Who ? Whence ? What ?
  • Project Team
    • Sponsors: OSD + NDIA, other Govt. orgs.
    • Steering Group: DoD, SEI, Defense industry
    • SEI Proj. Mgr., 40+ authors, 60 Stakeholder/Reviewers
  • Source models:
    • CMM SW v1.1, CMM SW v2.0d, EIA IS731, IPD v0.98
  • Products
    • Continuous and staged representations of:
      • CMMI-SE/SW
      • With and without IPPD
    • ARC (Assessment Requirements for CMMI)
    • SCAMPI (Standard CMMI Assessment Method for Process Improvement)
    • Training
    • Common CMM framework (CCF) for easy extensibility

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

cmmi releases

CMMI Background 3 of 4

CMMI Releases
  • First Release of CMMI – August 1999
  • Numerous public comment periods
  • Current Status
    • Version 1.02 of CMMI-SE/SW and CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD released Dec. 4,‘00
    • Version 1.02d of CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/A (addition of the Acquisition discipline amplification)
    • Version 1.1 Dec. 2001 – next major release
    • Training 

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

training

CMMI Background 4 of 4

Training
  • Introductory classes for SE/SW
    • Staged
    • Continuous
  • CMMI Intermediate concepts class
    • For prospective CMMI teachers and Lead Assessors
  • Lead Assessor training (SCAMPI)

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

vocabulary shift

CMMI Terminology 1 of 2

Vocabulary Shift
  • KPA is now Process Area (PA)
  • Key Practices are now Practices
  • “Software” dropped from many terms
    • “Organization’s Standard SW Process” (OSSP) is now “Organization’s Set of Standard Processes”
    • “Project’s defined software process” now simply “project’s defined process”
  • CAF -> ARC (Assessment Requirements for CMMI)
  • CBA-IPI -> SCAMPI (Standard CMMI Assessment Method for Process Improvement)

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

new terms in the cmmi

CMMI Terminology 2 of 2

New Terms in the CMMI
  • Generic Goals and Practices
  • Process architectures
  • Process elements
  • Product life cycle
  • Organizational support environment
  • Organizational measurement repository
  • Project development plan
  • Achievement/Target capability level profile

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

cmmi broadens scope

6

8

7

9

10

4

5

Design

Readiness

System

Requirements

Allocated

Contract

Book

Baselined &

Approved

System

Requirements

Baselined

Project

Initiation

Ready for

Field

Test

System Test

Readiness

Overview 1 of 4

CMMI Broadens Scope

Software Engineering

System Engineering

Integrated Product & Process Development

  • Current CMM-SW covers Allocated SW Reqts -> SW Test
  • Integrated CMMI-SE/SW covers Product Development
  • Integrated CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD adds collaborative support

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

cmmi is tailorable

Optimizing

Quantitatively Managed

Defined

Managed

Performed

Overview 2 of 4

CMMI Is Tailorable
  • Staged Model
  • Continuous Model
    • Every PA [goal] can be at any Capability Level
    • Raises the bar for high maturity organizations
    • An organization can choose, for example, to be at least at Level 3 for all PAs, at Level 4 for a small number, and at Level 5 for a select few

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

cmmis are configurable

Overview 3 of 4

CMMIs Are Configurable
  • CMMI has a modular design to fit the varied needs of users, or to fit the needs of a single organization at various times in its improvement path
  • Disciplines
  • Today:
  • Software
  • System Engineering
  • Integrated P&P Dev.
  • Future:
  • Acquisition
  • Hardware Engineering
  • People\

Improvement Approach

Maturity

or

Capability

Pick a combination of disciplines

CMMI-1

Pick Staged or

Continuous

CMMI-2

CMMI-3

SEI can generate a custom CMMI,

Training & Assessment Tool

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

model structural terms

Overview 4 of 4

Model Structural Terms
  • Generic Goals (GGs)
    • Apply to all Process Areas
    • GGs for Institutionalizing each Level
  • Generic Practices
    • Define activities for each GG
  • Common Features
    • Apply to Staged only !
    • GGs for
      • Commitment, Ability to Perform, Directing Implementation, Verification
    • Measurement replaced by Directing Implementation
    • Activities (CF) is now Practices

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

cmm to cmmi maturity levels
CMM to CMMI Maturity Levels
  • 24 Process Areas in Levels 2 - 5 (# PA’s)
  • L1: Initial -> L0: Not Performed
  • L1: Performed
  • L2: Repeatable(6) -> Managed (7)
  • L3: Defined(7) -> Defined (11/13)
  • L4: Managed(2) -> Quantitatively Managed (2)
  • L5: Optimizing(3) -> Optimizing (2)

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

continuous cmmi capability levels model only
Continuous CMMI Capability Levels - Model Only
  • 6 Levels of capability
    • L0 Not Performed
    • L1 Performed
      • Specific practices (activities) performed but institutionalizing generic practices are not
    • Level 2 - 5 same objective as CMM
  • Each PA may be implemented at its own Capability Level !

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

process areas managed level

L2: Managed 1 of 2

Process Areas – Managed Level
  • Similar to CMM,
    • Requirements Management
    • Project Planning
    • Project Monitoring and Control (Project Tracking & Oversight)
    • Supplier Agreement Management (expanded from Subcontract Management)
    • Process and Product Quality Assurance (expanded SQA)
    • Configuration Mgmt. (“Software” dropped)
  • Measurement is “promoted” and receives focus
    • Measurement and Analysis (huge change; “[The organization] develops and sustains a measurement capability in support of management information needs" )

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

ippd changes managed level

L2: Managed 2 of 2

IPPD Changes – Managed Level
  • New Practice added to Project Planning
    • Plan Stakeholder Involvement
  • New Practice added to Project Monitoring and Control
    • Monitor Stakeholder Involvement
  • New Generic Practice added to Directing Implementation (all Process Areas at Level 2)
    • Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

process areas defined level

L3: Defined 1 of 3

Process Areas – Defined Level
  • Similar to CMM
    • Organizational Process Focus
    • Organizational Process Definition
    • Organizational Training (Training Program)
    • Integrated Project Management (Integrated SW Mgmt – risk management + Intergroup Coordination)
  • New
    • Decision Analysis and Resolution (applies to planning, budgeting, architecture, design, supplier selection, test planning, logistics, project control, and production)
    • Risk Management (…identifies potential problems before they occur, so that risk-handling activities may be invoked as needed…)

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

engineering process areas

L3: Defined 2 of 3

Engineering Process Areas
  • CMM’s Software Product Engineering is replaced by 5 PA’s
    • Direct influence of Systems Engineering model
  • The new PA’s are:
    • Requirements Development (produces requirements + preliminary functional architecture)
    • Technical Solution (transforms product requirements into a specification of physical components and interfaces)
    • Product Integration
    • Verification (includes Peer Reviews; did we build the product right?)
    • Validation (did we build the right product?)

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

ippd changes for defined level

L3: Defined 3 of 3

IPPD Changes for Defined Level
  • Integrated Project Management given a collaborative focus – goals for:
    • Using Shared Vision
    • Organizing Integrated Teams
  • New PA: Organizational Environment for Integration
    • Provide IPPD Infrastructure – share vision, integrate work environment
    • Manage People for Integration – leadership, incentives
  • New PA: Integrated Teaming
    • The purpose of Integrated Teaming is to form and sustain an integrated team for the development of products.
    • Like Intergroup Coordination but much much more

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

process areas at l4 quantitatively managed
Process Areas at L4: Quantitatively Managed
  • Organizational Process Performance
    • Formerly a goal of QPM, now a PA to emphasize its importance
    • Provides the organizational data, baselines, and models to support quantitative management of both the organization's and the projects' processes
  • Quantitative Project Management
    • Combines CMM’s SQM (product) and QPM (process)
    • “…quantitatively manage the project’s defined process to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives
      • Statistical control
      • Quantitative quality goals and controls during the project

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

process areas at l5 optimizing
Process Areas at L5: Optimizing
  • Process Change Management and Technology Change Management have been restructured into Organizational Innovation and Deployment
      • Continually select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements
      • Identification and evaluation of potential changes, prioritized using quantitative performance measures produced by Organizational Process Performance (L4)
      • Technology here is to support, enhance or automate processes (the Technical Solution PA addresses the broader areas of technology)
  • Defect Prevention has been transformed into Causal Analysis and Resolution
    • Identifies causes of defects in the project’s defined process to take action to prevent them from occurring in the future
    • Broadened to address “other problems” besides defects, e.g. cycle time

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

specifics generics in staged model

Staged 1 of 3

Specifics & Generics in Staged Model
  • PA - Project Monitoring and Control
  • SG1 Monitor Project Against Plan
    • SP 1.1 Monitor Project Planning Parameters
    • SP 1.2 Monitor Commitments
    • SP 1.3 Monitor Risks
    • SP 1.4 Monitor Data Management
    • SP 1.5 Monitor Stakeholder Involvement
    • SP 1.6 Conduct Progress Reviews
    • SP 1.7 Conduct Milestone Reviews
  • SG2 Manage Corrective Action to Closure
    • SP 2.1 Analyze Issues
    • SP 2.2 Take Corrective Action
    • SP 2.3 Manage Corrective Action

Specific Practices

Correspond to Activities

In the CMM

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

specifics generics in staged model23

Staged 2 of 3

Specifics & Generics in Staged Model
  • GG2 Institutionalize a Managed Process
    • GP 2.1 CO1 Establish an Organizational Policy
    • GP 2.2 AB1 Plan the Process
    • GP 2.3 AB2 Provide Resources
    • GP 2.4 AB3 Assign Responsibility
    • GP 2.5 AB4 Train People
    • GP 2.6 DI1 Manage Configurations
    • GP 2.7 DI2 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
    • GP 2.8 DI3 Monitor and Control the Process
    • GP 2.9 VE1 Objectively Evaluate Adherence
    • GP 2.10 VE2 Review Status with Higher-level Mgmt.

For all L2 Process Areas

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

specifics generics in staged model24

Staged 2 of 3

Specifics & Generics in Staged Model
  • GG3 Institutionalize a Defined Process
    • In addition to GP 2.1 – 2.10
    • GP 3.1 (AB1) Establish a Defined Process
    • GP 3.2 (DI4) Collect Improvement Information

For all L3, L4, & L5 Process Areas

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

specifics generics in continuous model

Continuous 1 of 3

Specifics & Generics in Continuous Model
  • PA - Project Monitoring and Control
  • SG1 Monitor Project Against Plan
    • SP 1.1 Monitor Project Planning Parameters
    • SP 1.2 Monitor Commitments
    • SP 1.3 Monitor Risks
    • SP 1.4 Monitor Data Management
    • SP 1.5 Monitor Stakeholder Involvement
    • SP 1.6 Conduct Progress Reviews
    • SP 1.7 Conduct Milestone Reviews
  • SG2 Manage Corrective Action to Closure
    • SP 2.1 Analyze Issues
    • SP 2.2 Take Corrective Action
    • SP 2.3 Manage Corrective Action

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

specifics generics in continuous model26

Continuous 2 of 3

Specifics & Generics in Continuous Model
  • GG1 Achieve Specific Goals
    • GP 1.1 Identify Work Scope
    • GP 1.2 Perform Base Practices
  • GG2 Institutionalize a Managed Process
    • GP 2.1 CO1 Establish an Organizational Policy
    • GP 2.2 AB1 Plan the Process
    • GP 2.3 AB2 Provide Resources
    • GP 2.4 AB3 Assign Responsibility
    • GP 2.5 AB4 Train People
    • GP 2.6 DI1 Manage Configurations
    • GP 2.7 DI2 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
    • GP 2.8 DI3 Monitor and Control the Process
    • GP 2.9 VE1 Objectively Evaluate Adherence
    • GP 2.10 VE2 Review Status with Higher-level Mgmt.

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

specifics generics in continuous model27

Continuous 3 of 3

Specifics & Generics in Continuous Model
  • GG3 Institutionalize a Defined Process
    • GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process
    • GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information
  • GG4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
    • GP 4.1 Establish Quality Objectives
    • GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance
  • GG5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
    • GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
    • GP 5.2 Correct Common Cause of Problems

Applies to each Process Area !

As well as product faults

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

what you can learn from the model documents
What you can learn from the Model Documents
  • Both Staged & Continuous model documents have:
    • Model Structure
    • Model Terminology
    • Understanding the Model
    • Using the Model
  • In addition to the PA definitions.

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

so what s changed from cmm sw v1 1 really
So what’s Changed from CMM SW v1.1, Really ?
  • Clarification of “Measurement”
  • Expansion of Software Product Engineering
  • Support for Risk Management and Decision Making
  • “Redundant” common feature definitions have become “Generics”
  • The “mitosis” of SQM / QPM into Process Capability + Quant. Process Management
  • PCM + TCM -> Organizational Innovation and Deployment

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

and what else has changed
And what else has changed?
  • SE, IPPD & (soon) Acquisition disciplines
  • Integration of CMMs into “one” model
  • Support for Staged and Continuous
  • Model support – ARC, SCAMPI, Training, Transition Plan
    • Thorough defined
    • Transition Plan couched in legalese

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

benefits of using the cmmi 1 of 2
Benefits of using the CMMI (1 of 2)
  • Better alignment with Total Product Mgmt.
    • Focuses on alignment of process with business goals and results
    • Covers more of the development life-cycle
    • Makes possible an integrated assessment to cover multiple discipline-based assessments SW,SE,IPPD
  • Evolutionary
    • Relatively smooth transition from CMM 1.1 to CMMI SW Staged
    • More precise definitions for measurement practices and Risk Management

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

benefits of using the cmmi 2 of 2
Benefits of Using the CMMI (2 of 2)
  • Tailorable to organization’s needs(Staged and/or Continuous)
  • Clear and unambiguous at higher maturity levels
  • Intentional closer compatibility with emerging international standards
    • “A26. The method shall define a mechanism for translating assessment observations into associated process attribute outcomes in accordance with ISO/IEC TR 15504-2 [SPICE] clause 7.6.”

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

risks of using the cmmi
Risks of Using the CMMI
  • CMMI IPPD is not soup yet…
    • V1.1 Release target 12/01 ( 2.25 yrs from Day 1 )
    • CMMI SW/SE training piloted
    • SCAMPI pilots under way
  • Transitioning from CMM requires re-orientation
  • Continuous or Staged ?
  • When used for maturity verification the bar is higher
  • Linkage to ISO 9000 & 9000:2000 has been done on a case by case basis – no consensus among ISO registrars at this time on ISO – CMMI equivalency

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger

for more information

CMMISM

  • General Information
  • News and Communications
  • Publications and Transition Materials
  • Product Suite
  • Organizing Documents
  • Related Web Pages
For more information
  • http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/

CMMI - Rogoway, Weinberger