fuel injection systems with a focus on fuel atomization
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Fuel Injection Systems with a focus on Fuel atomization. By: David Shamrell. Overview. Fuel Injection Systems Speed Density EFI Fuel Injector Design Fuel Atomization Swirl Injectors Electrospray. Speed Density Fuel Injection Sys. Fuel Flow Path:

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Fuel Injection Systems
    • Speed Density
    • EFI
  • Fuel Injector Design
  • Fuel Atomization
    • Swirl Injectors
    • Electrospray
speed density fuel injection sys
Speed Density Fuel Injection Sys.
  • Fuel Flow Path:
    • Pump → Filter → Regulator → Branch Lines → Injector.
  • Air Flow Path
    • Air Filter →Throttle Plate →Intake Manifold
  • Determines Air Flow Via:
    • Engine Speed
    • Manifold Pressure
    • Air Temperature
efi system
EFI System
  • Fuel Flow Path
    • Same as Speed Density
  • Air Flow Path
    • Air Filter →Air Flow Sensor→ Throttle Plate→ Intake Manifold
  • Determine Air Flow Via:
    • Measured Air Flow
    • Engine Speed

Air Flow Sensor

fuel injector
Fuel Injector
  • Electromagnetically actuated valve
    • Can cycle several times a second
      • Controlled by Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
    • Nozzle design affect atomization
      • Needle helps minimize dribble (secondary injection)
fuel atomization
Fuel Atomization
  • Fuel Atomization is a function of:
    • Fuel injector geometry
    • Fuel jet velocity
      • Function of fuel system pressure
    • Spray type (turbulent or laminar)
      • Function of nozzle type (Swirl, etc)
    • Fuel delivery temperature
    • Fuel electrical charge
swirl nozzle injectors
Swirl Nozzle Injectors
  • Multiple types, one pictured from patent 6029913
    • Filed by Cummins Engine Company 1998
      • 6 curvilinear spray holes
      • 90 degree curvature orientation
  • “flow through tangential flow path causing rapid spreading and breakup of fuel jet spray upon exiting spray hole”
electrospray injection
Electrospray Injection
  • Installed Electrode:
    • Downstream fuel injector
    • Upstream orifice
  • Benefits
    • Reduces surface tension of liquid
    • Shortens breakup length
    • Enlarges the cone angle of the spray
electrospray experimental results
Electrospray Experimental Results

0 KV

Fuel jet

No jet

30 KV

Wider more homogenous spray

electrospray issues
Electrospray Issues
  • Charge To Mass Ratio (of droplet)
    • Inversely proportional to droplet size
    • Step increase around 20µm (droplet diameter)
    • Modern techniques w/out electrode can achieve 10µm
  • Charge Used in Experimental = 30KV
    • Hard to obtain in a mobile platform
  • Injection velocity vs. charge (Competing Factors)
    • Charge imparted is a function of time
      • Slower velocity = more charge
    • However atomization is proportional to injection velocity
      • Thus slower velocity = less atomization
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