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Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Presented by Katherine Sawyer For BIOL 306 Genome Project October 14, 2009

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosisPresented by Katherine Sawyer • How many nucleotides, genes, and chromosomes are in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome? • Why is it important to study the M. tuberculosis genome? • What are 2 recent research findings related to the M. tuberculosis genome?

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis facts: Type of organism: bacillus (rod-shaped) bacteria (eubacteria) Lineage [NCBI Taxonomy]: • Cellular organisms;  • Bacteria; Actinobacteria; • Actinobacteria(class);  • Actinobacteridae;  • Actinomycetales;  • Corynebacterineae; • Mycobacteriaceae;  • Mycobacterium;  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex;  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  4. M. Tuberculosis infection (M. tuberculosis are pink rods)Image from http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/INFEHTML/INFEC033.html

  5. .Image from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( public domain.)

  6. More M. tuberculosis facts • According to CDC, 1/3 of the world’s population are infected with TB. • Each year, nearly 9 million people around the worldbecome sick with TB and almost 2 million die from illness caused by M. tuberculosis • TB is the primary cause of death of people who are HIV infected. • Some strains are multi-drug resistant • Most common strains lead to respiratory and lung disease, some strains can also affect brain (meningitis), liver, and other organs

  7. W.H.O. Map of New TB cases, 2006image fromhttp://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_EstimatedTB_ITHRiskMap.png

  8. M. tuberculosis infection • Left image From http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1607.htm • Right image from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1034.htm

  9. M. tuberculosis genome • Over 70 identified strains • First sequenced was H36Rv: 4,411, 529 bp • T46:4,347,699 bp • Average bp = approximately 4.4 Mbp • 4183 Genes • 1 chromosome • Large genome for a bacteria, slightly smaller than E. coli

  10. Genome size comparison with other bacteria

  11. Genome size comparison with other organisms

  12. M. tuberculosis genome research • First complete sequence project in 1998 by Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (whole genome shotgun sequencing method). • (Fleishman, et al, 2002) Genetic variation between strains was more than expected, including long sequence polymorphism. • (Caws, et al, 2008) Both the host and the bacterial genome affect the disease process. There are specific strains adapted to specific human populations

  13. Why did I choose this M. tuberculosis? • Understanding of M. tuberculosis makes better drug development possible. Successful drug therapy for this disease could benefit millions of people. • Bioinformatics play a key role in comparing the huge variety of strains of this bacteria in addition to the sequencing process itself.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosisPresented by Katherine Sawyer • How many nucleotides, genes, and chromosomes are in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome? • Why is it important to study the M. tuberculosis genome? • What are 2 recent research findings related to the M. tuberculosis genome?

  15. References: complete genomes • Cole S. T., Brosch R., Parkhill J., Garnier T., Churcher C., Harris D., Gordon S. V., Eiglmeier K., Gas S., Barry III C.E., et al., (1998) Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393: 190-198, 537-544. • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_002755?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_009565?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_009525?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_012943?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Sequence.Sequence_ResultsPanel.Sequence_RVDocSum

  16. Other references • Smith, I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis and Molecular Determinants of Virulence (2003 July) Clinical Microbiology Review 16(3): 463-496. • Caws M., Thwaites G., Dunstan S., Hawn T.R., Lan N.T.N. , Thuong N.T.T., Stepniewska K., Huyen M.G.T., Bang N.D., Loc T.H., et al.. (2008) The Influence of Host and Bacterial Genotype on the Development of Disseminated Disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Public Library of Science (PLoS) Pathogens 4(3) e100004. • Fleischmann, RD, Allnad D, Eisen, JA, Carpenter L, White, O, Peterson, R., Deboy, R, Dodson, R, Gwinn, M, Haft, D., Hickey, E, Kolonay, JF, Nelson, WC, Umayam, A, Ermolaeva, M, Salzberg, SL, Delcher, A, Utterback, T. , Weidman, J. Khouri, H. Gill, J, Mikula, A., Bishai, W. Jacobs, WR, Venter, JC, and Fraser, CM, (2002) Whole Genome Comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical and Laboratory Strains. Journal of Bacteriology 184 (19) : 5479-5490. • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=genomeprj&cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=224 • http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/MTB/MTB.html • http://www.cdc.gov/tb/ • http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_EstimatedTB_ITHRiskMap.png