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Chapter 13 Integration and collaboration. Student: Aya Wang. Introduction.

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In today’s world of international trade and global competition, where increasingly supply chains compete more so than individual firms and products,integrationandcollaboration have become key differentiators of high performing supply chains.

core sections
Core sections
  • Supply chain integration
  • Supply chain collaboration principles
  • Supply chain collaboration methods
  • Collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR)
  • Vendor managed inventory (VMI)
learning objectives
Learning objectives
  • Define the terms integration and collaboration in the global SCM context
  • Explain how internal and external integration can be achieved to benefit supply chain performance
  • Discuss collaborative working and partnerships
  • Elaborate on specific methods used to enable collaboration
  • Offer a holistic perspective of SCM to provide an understanding of how supply chains can gain greater integration and collaboration in the future
supply chain integration
Supply chain integration
  • Integration is the alignment and interlinking of business processes, and embodies various communication channels and linkages within a supply network
  • Collaboration is a relationship between supply chain partners developed over a period of time
  • Integration should not be confused with collaboration,

and integration is possible without collaboration, but it can be an enabler of collaboration

distinctions between the primary modes of integration
Distinctions between the primary modes of integration

Integration with suppliers and customers

Integration with selected first tier customers or service providers

Integration with selected first tier, and increasingly second tier suppliers

Cross-functional integration within a selected organization

internal integration
Internal integration
  • To integrate communications and information systems so as to optimise their effectiveness and efficiency
  • Can be achieved by structuring the organisationand the design and implementation of information systems
    • Non-value adding activity is minimised
    • Costs,lead-times, andfunctional silos are reduced
    • Service quality is improved
  • BPR and STS method are commonly used to analyse existing organizational structures, eliminate non-value adding activities, and implement new work structures→let organization be optimally aligned
  • ERPis key enabler of internal integration, often expose any remaining non-value adding activities in the organization
external integration
External integration
  • EDI is a key enabler of supply chain integration
    • It streamlines information sharing and processingbetween supply chain partners
    • Effective and efficient organisational design is a prerequisite
  • ‘Keiretsu’ supply chain structure:
    • OEMwork closely with their first tier suppliers to integrate manufacturing, logistics and information processes; which is passed upstream
      • This enables just-in-time line-side delivery at their assembly plants
      • A seamless lean supply chain is created
      • The supply chain is viewed as one extended operation
      • It was pioneered in Japanese banking
supply chain collaboration principles
Supply chain collaboration principles
  • While IT are enablers of supply chain integration, optimal and uniform organizational structures are fundamental to integrating factors in a supply chain
  • The key constraint of integration across multiple echelons
    • The scale and complexity of global supply chains
    • Information sharing may not be benefit to all supply chain partners, possibly exposing suppliers to their competitors
  • Supermarket retail is intensely competitive
    • Drives down consumer prices at the supermarket shelves
    • Squeeze their suppliers to operate with lower profit margins and tighter delivery schedules
    • Competitively rather than collaboratively
supply chain collaboration principles1
Supply chain collaboration principles
  • Collaboration is dependant on the provision of mutual benefit, but it between suppliers is difficult to achieve in supply chains
  • Hence trust becomes an issue
the prisoner s dilemma
The prisoner’s dilemma

You and a partner are suspected of committing a crime and

arrested. The police interview each of you separately. The police

detective offers you a deal: your sentence will be reduced if you


Here are your options:

• If you confess but your partner doesn’t: your partner gets the full 10-year sentence for committing the crime, whilst you get a 2-year sentence for collaborating.

• If you don’t confess but you partner does: the tables are turned! You get the full 10-year sentence, whilst your partner gets the 2-year sentence.

• If both of you confess: you each get a reduced sentence of 5 years.

• If neither of you confess: you are both free people.

the prisoner s dilemma1
The prisoner’s dilemma
  • The dilemma you face is ‘do you trust your partner to make the same decision as you?’
  • The best strategy is based on trust,
  • and results in a ‘win-win’ situation.
the journey from open market negotiations to collaboration
The journey from open market negotiations to collaboration
  • A trust-based win-win situation in a supply chain partnership takes time
  • Trust needs to be built up step-by-step, the journey towards a collaborative supply chain can be long and arduous
the combination of vertical and horizontal collaboration can achieve
The combination of vertical and horizontal collaboration can achieve..
  • Reduce
    • Inventory-carrying costs
    • Unproductive waiting time
    • Empty running times
  • Adopting collaborative methods such as joint planning and technology sharing can improve lead time performance
supply chain collaboration methods
Supply chain collaboration methods
  • Suppliers competing for the same orders creates supply chain inefficiencies
    • This will inevitably drive down their prices, promise unrealistic

lead-times and lose their focus on product and service quality

  • Supply base rationalisation: periodically a key focus of such organisations
    • E.g. in 2002 Nissancut its supply base by half to reduce complexity and costs
    • A response to market pressures
    • It is easier for an OEM to work with a few selected suppliers, than to work with many suppliers.
    • Suppliers who are not directly competingagainst each other for individual orders are more likely to collaborate
supply chain collaboration methods1
Supply chain collaboration methods
  • Supplier development can enable improved integration and also collaboration (e.g. Keiretsu)
    • Shift suppliers’ mindsets from thinking competitively to collaboratively
    • Enables integrated order processing application for aggregated procurement
  • Aggregated procurement:
    • Rather than individual suppliers tendering for particular orders, specific suppliers are selected by a supplier selection software package based on their capabilities
    • Each supplier gains a share of the total orders based on their ability to deliver the order on time and to specification
    • Consequently, the overall supply base incrementally improves, reducing the likelihood of future rationalization.
collaborative planning forecasting and replenishment cpfr
Collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR)
  • Scale and complexity are significant constraints
  • Fundamentally, it is difficult to forge close partnerships with many partners
  • Hence some CPFR solutions will have greater scope and depth than others

Figure 13.10 The CPFR process (adapted from Cassivi, 2006)

three modes of cpfr
Three modes of CPFR
  • Basic CPFR:a limited number of business processes integrated between a limited number of supply chain partners
  • Developed CPFR:will typically involve a greater number of data exchanges between two partners, and may extend to suppliers taking responsibility for replenishment on behalf of their customer
  • Advanced CPFRgoes beyond data exchanges to synchronise forecasting information systems and coordinate planning and replenishment processes
the transition to an advanced cpfr
The transition to an advanced CPFR
  • A long-term relationship to have built up
  • Considerable constraints
    • Time, complexity, scale and the substantialfinancial investment required
  • For large-scale multinational organization
    • The benefits of CPFR outweigh the initial investment
  • For organizations without the same economies of scale
    • The development is obviously more difficult to achieve
vendor managed inventory vmi
Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)
  • A holistic view of inventory levels is taken throughout the supply chain with a single point of control for all inventory management
  • The vendor manages stock replenishment at their facilities to enable a customer to effectively eliminate an echelon in the supply chain
  • Upstream demand visibility is improved to reduce the impact of demand fluctuations
  • Hence VMI can enable supply to more accurately and precisely meet demand
vendor managed inventory vmi1
Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

Figure 13.11 A simplifi ed VMI scenario (adapted from Matthias et al., 2005)

vendor managed inventory vmi2
Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

By providing improved supply and demand information

visibility via centralized control, VMI can specifically..

  • Reduce the impact of the following sources of the

bullwhip effect:

    • Price variation
    • customers over-ordering due to stock shortages

(i.e. Houlihan effect)

    • Demand signal processing (i.e. Forrester effect)
    • Order batching(i.e. Burbidge effect)

→in Chapter 7

  • As with CPFR,significant investment in developing an appropriate collaborative relationship is a prerequisite to operating VMI
types of vendor managed inventory in supply chains
Types of vendor managed inventory in supply chains

Type I and II have been implemented in supply chains in various sectors

Type III and IV are more advanced and require further research and development

selected generic organisation structure s
Selected generic organisation structures
  • Improved integration between dedicated teamsin each department, communication and information processing between departments id streamlined.
  • it retain functional reporting structures, that will cause conflict of purpose between, and duplication of the roles, of the functional managers and the process or product managers

Each department designs their own silo for their own purposes, without due consideration of the needs of other departments

  • Individuals from each relevant function are located together with little or no need to operate outside of that team
  • Currently best practice in organizational design is complete shift away from functional silos to a pure product or process organization structure