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AS Revision Introduction to Physical Education G451. Why do you participate in Physical Activity (or not)? . Key. ET = Exam TIP KT = Key Term. Physical Activity. Physical Benefits Eg improved CV fitness o r maintenance of a h ealthy body weight. Mental Benefits

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  • ET = Exam TIP

  • KT = Key Term

Physical activity
Physical Activity

Physical Benefits

Eg improved CV fitness

or maintenance of a

healthy body weight

Mental Benefits

Eg stress relief, mood

Enhancement, or feel good


Personal Benefits

Eg knowing own strengths

and weaknesses or

Increasing self esteem.


Eg feeling of belonging or

Having healthy relationships

ET = you need to be able to give examples of physical, mental, personal and social benefits of regular participation in physical activity.

Sedentary lifestyles
Sedentary Lifestyles

  • Recommendations

  • 30mins moderate intensity

  • Physical activity x 5 per week

  • Children and young people

  • 60mins of moderately intense

  • Physical activity each day. At

  • Least two sessions should

  • include higher impact activity

  • To improve bone health, muscle

  • Strength and flexibility.

  • Barriers to Regular Participation

  • Lack of:

  • Energy

  • Perceived ability/skill

  • Friends who participate

  • Suitable facilities nearby

  • Money eg to join a gym

  • Suitable/correct kit

  • Also:

  • Anxiety about being out after dark

  • Preference to stay at home when it’s cold or wet

  • Dislike exercise or sweating

  • Embarrassed to show body

  • In brief


Lack of opportunity

Lack of provision

Lack of esteem

Key terms
Key Terms

Physical Benefits – to do with the body Eg potential to reduce the risk of heart disease.

Social Benefits – to do with others

Eg having positive relationships

Personal Benefits – to do with self

Eg improved self-esteem

Mental Benefits – to do with the mind

Eg stress relief

ET - always use these key terms especially for ten mark questions

Esteem – Confidence to participate

Opportunity – The chance to take part

based on factors such as time, money etc

Provision – the availability of facilities

which allow for participation.

Physical recreation
Physical Recreation

Physical Recreation

Enjoyment is a key


Physical Recreation

Emphasis on:-

Participation not performance

Taking part, not winning

Enjoyment and satisfaction, not record-breaking

ET - when asked to identify the characteristics of Phys Rec it is important to be specific and clear in your answers. If simple bland terms are used such as ‘anyone, anywhere at anytime’ to describe characteristics you will not gain marks. Be specific not vague!

Benefits of outdoor recreation
Benefits of Outdoor Recreation

Remember that outdoor recreation is physical recreation in the natural environment eg a walking holiday

Characteristics of physical education
Characteristics of Physical Education

PE can be defined as :-

Learning about and through physical activity

The learning of physical, personal, preparatory and qualitative values through

formal physical activity in school

Outdoor education
Outdoor Education

Constraints of widespread

participation In Outdoor

Education by young people:-

  • Lack of adequate funding, specialist staff and transport costs

  • Distance from natural facilities

  • Insufficient voluntary contributions from pupils

  • Outdoor activities can take up too much curriculum time.

  • Parents anxieties over H & s concerns

  • and staff reluctant to take responsibility

Beginners Experts

Perceived Risk Real Risk

Completely safe dangerous even fatal

Imagined challenging

Characteristics and benefits of sport
Characteristics and Benefits of Sport

What makes a sport?


Vigorous exertion




Key terms1
Key Terms

Physical Prowess – Skill

Sportsmanship– Fair Play

Physical Endeavour– Effort and Commitment

Gamesmanship– Stretching the rules

To gain an unfair advantage.

Aesthetic– movement that is beautiful

to watch and pleasing to the eye

Sledging– Attempting to undermine an

Opponent by verbally abusing , taunting

Deviance – seriously breaking the rules

Characteristics of Surviving Ethnic Sports









Relatively Isolated

19 th century public schools
19th Century Public Schools

Community Members

Oxbridge Blues


Community Leaders




Assistant Masters

Army Officers

Move From Popular Recreation (B4 IR) to Rational Recreation (PIR)

  • Popular RecreationRational Recreation

  • Localised Local – regional – national

  • Uncoded Formal codification

  • Cruel/Violent Channelled aggression

  • Irregular/occasional Regular

  • Courtly/popular Gentry – middle – working

  • Rural Rural – urban

  • Ritual Moral

  • Wagering Gambling curtailed


Ivy League

Win at all costs

Conference- Similar to a league

American dream

Highly Commercialised State

Capitalist State

300 million people

In 50 states

American football

Rags to riches

Franchise- The business that

Owns, runs and has voting rights

for a team

Australia (PIR)


Population 21,007,310 (2008 est.)

Young Nation


James Cook of England

charted eastern coast,

claimed it for British Crown

Retained Colonial Influences

Rugby 2 codes


Association football (Socceroos)


Complete time-line on map!

Australia (PIR)

Give reasons for physical activity (physical education, physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia. [5]


White Australia Policy

Bush Culture

Give reasons for physical activity (physical education, physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia. [5]

Reasons physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

  • Favourable


Outdoor lifestyle health conscious
Outdoor Lifestyle/Health Conscious physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

Government support
Government Support physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

  • The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) leads the development of elite sport and is widely acknowledged in Australia and internationally as a world best practice model for elite athlete development. The AIS is a pre-eminent elite sports training institution in Australia with world class facilities and support services. The AIS has 35 sport programs in 26 sports.

  • AIS scholarship holders to become tomorrow's world-beaters and all the information on how to join the AIS family is available through the scholarships section.

  • The AIS has been the nation's sports training powerhouse mainly due to the AIS facilities and the cutting edge Sports Science Sports Medicine support.

  • The AIS campus is located in the suburb of Bruce in the Australian Capital Territory. 

Sporting success
Sporting Success physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

proof of progress

Sport for all
Sport for All physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

Media support and interest
Media support and interest physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

A forum for advertisment
A forum for advertisment physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

Tradition of success
Tradition of Success physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

Unites a small nation
Unites a ‘Small Nation’ physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

High status in schools
High status in Schools physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia.

Impact on young peoples aspirations funding of physical activity
Impact on young Peoples aspirations physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia. Funding of Physical Activity

In: taxes, gaming duties

and National Lottery sales.

Out:- Local authorities, awards

and grants eg UK sport. Sportsmatch

Sponsorship, Armed forces sport

In: business profit, ticket sales, TV rights

Out:- sponsor individuals, teams, running and maintaining private sports

clubs and facilities, buying TV rights, Sport Aid Grants, National Sports Foundation

In: national lottery grants, awards for all, sportsmatch grants, local authority grants, NGBs, fundraising, Foundation for sports and arts, National sports Foundation, Commercial Sponsorship and members subscription

Out:- facility building maintenance and development, developing performers (coaching), running a club

World class pathway p rogramme
World Class Pathway physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia. Programme

Years from podium






Home country talent development systems

Government initiatives
Government Initiatives Sporting Excellence

Exam Tip 1

Key sporting bodies and orgs

such as UK sport are not told

what to do, however they are

answerable to the DCMS

due to the funding

they receive.

  • Gifted and talented

  • JAE programme

  • Kite Marking

  • Activemark

  • Sportsmark

  • Partnerships

Exam Tip 2

You can only be asked questions

on material that is in the

specification, so you will not get a

question specifically about PESSCL

strategy, you may have to identify

current government initiatives.

Exam Tip 3

There will be five parts to your AS

Socio-cultural studies q’s. The

Final part will be an extended 10

mark question. You have to

‘critically evaluate’, and therefore

prove how you can think and

make judgements.

Answers Sporting Excellence

Answers ctd
Answers Sporting Excellencectd

Excellence and participation in uk
Excellence and Participation in UK Sporting Excellence

Exam Tip

You could be asked to name and explain each layer of the sports development pyramid in the examination. Ensure you can recall the ones beginning with ‘p’, candidates often get these confused.

  • Highly skilled/elite

  • Fully committed with high level support

  • Emphasis on winning and competing

  • District, county or regional commitment

  • School or club participation, recreational

  • Non-competitive extra curricular - enjoy

  • Introduction to sport-basic skills

  • Positive attitudes to physical activity

The Sports Development Pyramid

Mass Participation Sporting Excellence

The continuum from mass participation to sporting excellence

Opportunity provision esteem
Opportunity Provision Esteem Sporting Excellence

‘White Flight’

Are we ‘guided’ into sports due to our race?

Do we avoid sports where our race has not traditionally or currently been represented?

Ethnic Minorities

Groups who are different in their ethnic origin from the majority of the population.


The physical characteristics of an individual.

  • Stacking

    • This is where players are put into positions and sports on the basis of their ethnic background.

‘Self-fulfilling prophecies’

Countries may concentrate on a particular sport e.g. Kenyan and middle/long distance running.

Target group
Target Group Sporting Excellence

How do we get Equal Opportunities? Sporting Excellence


Changing Attitudes

Allocate Funding



Key terms2
Key Terms Sporting Excellence

Myths– Untruths eg black males can’t swim and women can’t park cars.

Attitudes: Outlooks, feelings or thought about something.

Positive Discrimination– Favouritism

Or special treatment for the focus

Group in order to give them a chance

Stereotyping– Typecasting, labelling or pigeonholing people.

Social Exclusion– the negative result

of factors such as low income,

discrimination, poor housing etc that

can put some communities at a


Socialisation– the process by which people

Learn acceptable cultural beliefs and

behaviour including how to interact with

people who are different to themselves.

Drugs media sponsorship and violence in sport
Drugs Media Sponsorship and Violence in Sport Sporting Excellence

"In the name of all competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams."

Possible solutions to drug use
Possible solutions to Drug Use Sporting Excellence

  • Stricter more rigorous out-of season testing

  • Stricter punishments and life bans

  • Co-ordinated education programmes for athlete and coach

  • More funding for testing programmes and scientific research

  • Unified policies across NGBs

  • Role models promoting drug free sport

ET -If a question is asked for solution to the problem of drugs, make sure that you don’t list drug types, respond using the bullet points above.

Technology in sport
Technology in Sport Sporting Excellence

Exam Tip:

Be aware of modern

technological products are

up-to-date, technical

scientific or high-tech items

that impact on sport.

The impact is usually

Considered to be good, but

In some cases may increase

The chance of injury

Eg Football Boots

The roles of the media
The roles of the media Sporting Excellence

ET - If you are asked to critically evaluate the impact of the media on sport – it simply means that you should way up ( in good written form) the advantages and disadvantages of the media in sport eg additional funding for sport v rule changes and off-peak viewing times.

Media Sporting Excellence

Golden Triangle -The Inter-relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media

Sport and Media

High level sport is a media commodity.

Sport available 24/7

Media control over some sports

Celebrities are created and role models can have +ive or –ive image

Low profile sports get little attention so minimal sponsorship opportunities.

Relationship can increase match

fixing and other examples of


Sport and Sponsorship

Sponsorship increases popularity

and stability of sport.

Sport is a relatively inexpensive form of advertising.

Money from sponsorship can help improve spectator provision.

Powerful sports such as premier league football have some control over their sponsors

Sponsorship and Media; When sports are covered by the media sponsorship ultimately


Violence by players
Violence by Players Sporting Excellence

Causes Of Violence by Players

‘Cauldron Effect’






Crowd Behaviour

Solutions to Violence by Players Sporting Excellence


Harsher Penalties

Rule changes

Greater authority


Violence by Spectators Sporting ExcellenceReasons and Solutions

  • Add here

Ethics and high level sport
Ethics and High Level Sport Sporting Excellence




Fair play


Letter and Spirit of ‘The Law’

The olympic games
The Olympic Games Sporting Excellence

KT Olympic Charter- The ‘rule book’ that governs how the Olympic

Games and IOC are run.

The bringing together of people from 5 different Sporting Excellence


Promotes Olympic games

Fund raises

Organises visits to

Host City prior to


Appoints official

sponsors of 2012

Helps athletes and

NGBs prepare for

Olympic Games

Manages Team GB

Inc. transport and kit

Helps select Team GB

Works on Olympic Bids

Key terms3
Key Terms Sporting Excellence