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The “Eastern Question”. 1870s--constant crisis in the Balkans (who would control region ?) Russia's dream since reign of Catherine the Great was to retake the Balkans and ultimately Constantinople Pan-Slavism: Idea of uniting all Slavs in Europe under one gov't (Russia )

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the eastern question
The “Eastern Question”

1870s--constant crisis in the Balkans (who would control region?)

Russia's dream since reign of Catherine the Great was to retake the Balkans and ultimately Constantinople

Pan-Slavism: Idea of uniting all Slavs in Europe under one gov't (Russia)

Russia defeated the Ottoman Empire by 1878 and seemed poised to dominate the Balkans…more on Friday!

the eastern question1
The “Eastern Question”

Britain refused to accept Russian hegemony in Balkans and sent navy to help Turks

Extreme nationalistic spirit as demonstrated through an aggressive foreign policy - occurs in Britain; known as jingoism

Bismarck offered to mediate the crisis (came to be the Congress of Berlin)

imperialism and empire africa
Imperialism and Empire - Africa
  • 1880 – Most of Africa consisted of independent states
  • Berlin Conference
  • 1880 - Europeans controlled 10% of Africa
    • By 1914 – With the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia, all of Africa was controlled by Europeans
berlin conference 1884 1885 effects
Berlin Conference (1884-1885): Effects

Established the "rules" for conquest of Africa

Sought to prevent conflict over imperialism

Conference coincided with Germany's rise as an imperial power

Agreed to stop slavery and slave trade in Africa

Russia left the conference with little despite defeating the Turks

Informally created new alliance system

berlin conference effects
Berlin Conference: Effects

Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro become independent states

Austrian acquisition of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Transfer of Cyprus to Great Britain

berlin conference european empires expanding
Berlin Conference: European Empires Expanding
  • Germany
    • took control of Cameroon, Togo, southwest Africa, & East Africa
  • France
    • Controlled Tunisia, Algeria, French West Africa (including Morocco, Sahara, Sudan, Congo basin)
  • Italy
    • Controlled Libya
  • Great Britain
    • Egypt & Sudan
    • Battle of Omdurman (1898)
      • General Horatio H. Kitchener defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed 11,000 (use of machine gun) while only 28 Britons died
modernization and expansion in egypt and ethiopia muhammad ali
Modernization and Expansion in Egypt and Ethiopia: Muhammad Ali
  • Napoleon’s successor in Egypt = Muhammad Ali (1769-1849)
    • Eliminated rivals (ruled 1805-1848)
    • Political, social and economic reforms created modern Egypt
    • Wanted military strength for defense against Europe
      • Used European experts and techniques
    • Transformed landholding, increased agricultural production, modern administration and army
      • European-style state school system; opened military college at Aswan
      • Used peasants to cultivate cotton for exports to pay expenses
    • Combined Western methods and technology with Islamic religious and cultural traditions
    • By end of reign:
      • population doubled
      • trade with Europe up 600%,
      • new class of educated people
      • provided own textiles, paper, weapons and military uniforms

protectorateof Great Britain (1883 -1956)

model for the "new imperialism"

Egypt's inability to satisfy foreign investors led to control of its finances by France & Britain

Safeguarding the Suez Canal (completed in 1869) played a key role in the British occupation of Egypt and its bloody conquest of the Sudan

south africa and the boer war 1899 1902
South Africaand theBoer War (1899-1902)

Cecil Rhodes had become Prime Minister of Cape Colony

sponsor of the Cape-to Cairo dream ~ British domination of the African continent

Diamonds & gold were discovered

Region controlled by Boers (descendents of Dutch settlers)

Kruger Telegram (1902)

Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) dispatched telegram to Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance

Anger swept through Britain aimed at Germany

Massive British force eventually defeated Boers (1910)

The Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa.

white man s burden assignment
White Man’s Burden Assignment
  • Read Ethel Wood packet pg. 431 (inset text)
    • Explain the term ‘White Man’s Burden’. What does it mean?
    • How was the White Man’s Burden true? How was it false?
    • What are some positive impacts of the Scramble for Africa? Negative Impacts? (for Africa)
    • Do educated, developed and wealthy nations have a responsibility to under-developed nations? Why/Why not?
    • Do educated and wealthy people have a responsibility to under-privileged people? Why/Why not?
    • Do you agree or disagree with Social Darwinism? Explain your answer.