large displays are like regular sized displays, only larger, right? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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large displays are like regular sized displays, only larger, right?

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  1. large displaysare like regular sized displays, only larger, right? patrick baudisch microsoft research visualization and interaction research

  2. large screens and multimon

  3. Use Multimon No Multimon 32% 30% Plan to Use Multimon 38% ... are coming • information mural[Guimbretière, Winograd] • on large screens optical flow helps navigation [Tan 2001] • large screens help productivity tasks [Czerwinski 2003] • multi-monitor setups: access palette windows in Photoshop, CAD… [Grudin 2001] [Jon Peddie ResearchDec, 2002 N=6652]

  4. fill-in cursorscurrent frame fill-in cursorsprevious frame mouse motion building a large displayfocus plus context screens help—I can’t find my mouse cursorhigh-density cursor help—I can’t reach my stuff anymoredrag-and-pop context where there is no room for contexthalo

  5. Hardware • At least one hi-res display • At least one larger low-res display • Software • scaling of the display content is preserved • resolution varies

  6. setup

  7. application scenarios  video

  8. Subject’s task Document/view Smallest detail Ratio Static documents Web designer Page: 800 pixel Table detail: 1 pixel 800 Mechanical engineer Polybot segment: 5cm Clearance: 0.03mm 2,000 Graphic designer Poster: 1m Align: 0.5mm 2,000 Architect in remodeling Building: 50m Accuracy: 1cm 5,000 Photogrammetry (2) Highway 2 miles Accuracy: 1 inch 100,000 Geographic info. system County: 80km Land boundaries: 0.5m 160,000 Chip designers (2) Wafer: 12cm Grid: 0.5m 240,000 Dynamic Air traffic ctrl. tool builder Zone: 50km Plane distance in 25m steps 2,000 Ego shooter gamer Surrounding: 360º Aiming: 0.1º 3,000 Submarine ROV op. Surrounding: 360º Use arms: 1mm/0.05º 8,000 Strategy gamers (2) Map: 30k pixel Aiming: 1 pixel 30,000 field study: users & tasks

  9. Display technology homogeneous resolution 4 VisualizationSame # of pixels fisheye overview plus detail 5 4 4 wall-size, hi-res display … andcurrentsolutions What participants used focus plus context screen Available to½ of participants

  10. experiment 1: • 3 interfaces: • focus plus context screen • overview + detail • homogeneous • 2 tasks • 12 subjects from Xerox PARC • Within subjects, counter-balanced • Same number of pixels

  11. task 1: closest hotel 8 maps per interface F+C screen and O+D use same magnification factor

  12. task 2: verify connections Verify a different set of 24 connections on the board

  13. results manually zoomingtakes time 21% faster 36% faster 700 600 500 zooming+panning 400 overview+detail Average task completion times in seconds 300 focus+context screen 200 visually switching  reorientation 100 0 Map task Board task visually more ambiguous

  14. experiment 2:driving simulation 120 sec sequence 100 fields of nails; 30 rocks; tradeoff

  15. results Error rate only 1/3 of two-monitor setup 25 • Sweet spot:flight simulation, unmanned vehicles… 20 overview+detail focus+context screen 15 Mean number of collisions subjects caused Subjects preferred thef+c interface 10 5 0 run-over nails rocks hit

  16. but how about the computer desktop? ktop? ktop? • so it worked really well withcontent that already wasfocus & context… • …but what about the computer desktop? • how to view peripheral content in high-res • problem only because periphery is low-res? • not really… how to view a detail on a huge display wall? • it is just hard to see detail if located far away • the distinction of screen space into focusand context regions is always there(focus plus context screens only emphasize it)

  17. keeping the mouse working • on a large screen, cursor isfurther away from user • longer distances à higher mouse acceleration • temporal aliasing: 500 pixels jumps • lack of visual continuity & weak stimulus àusers lose track of the cursor

  18. the problem will get worse • “yes, but won’t faster computers make this problem go away?” • àNO: cursor update is limited by screen refresh rate • screen refresh rate has actually decreased (LCDs) • larger screens + lower refresh rate à status quo • future: even larger screens à problem will get worse

  19. fill-in cursorscurrent frame fill-in cursorsprevious frame inserts cursor image between actual cursor positions  the mouse cursor appear more continuous how it works previous cursorposition current cursorposition mouse motion

  20. this is not the mouse trail video • the windows mouse trail… • makes mouse trail last longer • drawback: cursor images lag behind • ...is not high-density cursor • hd cursor makes mouse trail denser • lag-free: mouse stops=>cursor stops

  21. benefits previous cursor position current cursor position mouse motion fill-in cursorscurrent frame mouse motion fill-in cursorsprevious frame • 1. mouse cursor appear more continuous • à easier to track the cursor • 2. higher “visual weight” • à easier to re-acquire the cursor

  22. designs alternatives a b c d e f g h frame acceleration • reference: exponential acceleration

  23. designs alternatives a b c d e f g h frame acceleration • motion blur with higher weight

  24. designs alternatives a b c d chose discreet version 1. latest cursor position is always shown blur-free and in full opacity 2. appearance that users are familiar with today 3. computationally less expensive e f g h frame acceleration • temporal super-sampling vs. motion blur

  25. a b c d e f g h frame acceleration designs alternatives • density = detectability vs. intrusiveness

  26. transfer function distancebetweencursor images hd cursor has no effect transfer function(configurable) cursor trail provides no speed cues onset threshold (configurable) mouse speed

  27. a b c d e f g h frame acceleration designs alternatives • optional cursor growth

  28. user study • conducted pre-study to define interface candidates • interfaces: control vs.high-density cursor (conservative, tripleDensity, plusScaling) • fitts’ law task • triple-mon: button located at 5” to 40” distance • participants: 7 external participants, 5 coworkers • hypotheses • high-density cursor faster • the greater the distance thegreater the effect • tripleDensity and plusScalingfaster than conservative

  29. 102 100 98 short distance conservative speedupup to 7% 96 + scale +3-dense 94 92 90 results regular mouse cursor time % relative to regular cursor high-density cursors 125 250 500 750 1000 target distance (mm)

  30. subjective satisfaction • most participants did not notice that cursor was different!“did that condition use a different mouse acceleration?”…

  31. lesson we learned:display frame rate is not a hard limit

  32. but how to see details? • so this gets the mouse to the periphery—nice • …but what if the user uses touch for input? • … or if user needs to see content in detail? let’s focus on a specificcase for a moment:extend basic actionsdrag-and-drop and picking

  33. scenario 1: long distances dragging is designed for small screens…… but becomes time-consuming on large screens

  34. scenario 2: dragging+bezels dragging across bezels in display wall is no problem for the mouse… …but a big problem when using pen/touch input

  35. drag-and-pop: demo • users starts dragging icon towards a distant folder or application • icons of compatible type come towards mouse cursor • user drops icon with minimal motion • targets retract drag-and-pop works across bezels

  36. drag-and-pop generalizes direct manipulation • bring content to the user • let the user interact with it • send content back

  37. scenario 1: long distances dragging on large screens

  38. scenario 2: dragging+bezels dragging acrossbezels in display wall

  39. the displays we used…

  40. design

  41. selecting candidates • initialize • all icons are candidates • filter • eliminate icons with non-matching file types • eliminate icons that are too close • eliminate icons outside target angle • if necessary, restrict to some hard limit

  42. preserving layout • snap to grid • eliminate empty rows and columns • translate back • place center of bounding box in front of user • closer for experts

  43. the rubber band • animationdid not work • “frozen”motion blur • narrow midriff • suggests elasticity • clue for distance • simplified version

  44. getting it out of the way • to rearrange icons on the desktop (overloaded): • any mouse motion moving away from the “popped-up” icons de-activates drag-and-pop • introduce flick gesture into mouse motion

  45. pre-study • 15 single, 6 dual, and4 triple monitor users • overall resolutions 800,000 pixels to 3,900,000 pixels • (= 66% more than the display wall used in the experiment). • 3 layouts for study: sparse (11), frame (28), cluttered (35)

  46. user study • participants: 2 female, 5 male • dynaWall • 3 Smartboard • 15’ long (4.5m) • 3 x 1024x768 pixels • native code not stable enough Macromedia Flash version • task: drag icons into matching folder • highlighting disappeared when started • each desktop: 11-35 icons + 10 icons to be filed

  47. Control Drag-and-pop results Control Drag-and-pop 3.7 timesspeedup • faster with drag-and-pop • error rate higher with drag-and-pop • most of the effect caused by the bezels

  48. subjective satisfaction • > 6 (out of 7) • “I liked using drag-and-pop” • “I always understood what was happening when drag-and-pop was on”, • “I would use drag-and-pop for large displays.” • < 3 for • “It took a long time to get used to drag-and-pop” • “It was hard to control what the targets did when drag-and-pop was on.” • drag-and-pop interface causes less manual stress and fatigue than the control interface • lesson learned: the shortest connection between two points on a display wall is not a straight line (fixed)

  49. drag-and-pick • problem • launch app or open file • drag-and-pick • user drags “background” • all icons in that direction move to the cursor • user drags % releases mouse over it • target is activated