Pierre Elliott Trudeau Canada’s most charismatic Prime Minister
Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Barbara Streisand, actress Also dated:Clint Eastwood, actor Joe Namath, NFL NY Jets QB Andre Agassi, famous tennis player Richard Gere, actor Warren Beatty, actor Liam Neeson, actor James Brolin, actor
Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Bianca Jagger, later ex-wife of Mick Jagger (Rolling Stones) Also dated:Warren Beatty, actor Mick Jagger, rock musician David Bowie, rock musician Bjorn Borg, famous tennis player
Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Margot Kidder(Lois Lane in superman movies) Also dated:Steven Spielberg
Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Liona Boyd, musician
Margaret Trudeau Her age: 22 His age: 52
PIERRE ELLIOT TRUDEAU • Canadian Nationalist – believed in a strong central government • Opposed to Maurice Duplessis & Quiet Revolution. • Intellectual – spent the first part of his life as a unionist and a Marxist • RENE LEVESQUE • Quebec nationalistpremier elected in 1976 • Wanted to have a referendum on Quebec “sovereignty-association”
Levesque asks Quebec residents: The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada, based on the equality of nations; this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad — in other words, sovereignty — and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency; any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular approval through another referendum; on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada?
1980 REFERENDUM:40% OUI: LET QUEBEC SEPERATE • 60% NON: KEEP QUEBEC PART OF CANADA • Over 85 per cent of eligible voters participated in the referendum. • Although relieved by the result, Prime Minister Trudeau recognized the 40 per cent of voters seeking an independent Quebec when he said, "We have all lost a little in this referendum."
PATRIATION OF THE CONSTITUTION • Following the NON vote in Quebec, Trudeau felt Canada needed a constitution of its own to make the country a full-fledged nation • He went about he process of adding a Charter of Rights and Freedoms to the Constitution. • Many of the provinces did not like his plan, especially some of the changes he proposed that made the federal government stronger. They rejected his plan. • In 1981, the government decided to host a FIRST MINISTERS’ CONFERENCE, where all the premiers get together with the prime minister. • During the Night of the Long Knives, Trudeau reached an agreement with the rest of the provinces, but left Quebec out. • He decided to go ahead and create a new constitution without Quebec’s support.
Quebeckers felt betrayed. They vowed that the fight was not over. Quebec refused to sign the new constitution, and promised another referendum in the future. In 1984, Pierre Elliott Trudeau resigned as Prime Minister.
BRIAN MULRONEY Elected as Prime Minister in 1984. • He wanted to bring Quebec into the Constitution. • He called a FIRST MINISTERS’ MEETING to get Quebec to sign on. • The conference took place at MEECH LAKE in 1987.
THE PROBLEMS • Each premier wants their own issue added to agenda:EXAMPLES: • Fisheries • Senate reform • Quebec wants a veto over future changes to the constitution. • “Distinct Society” Clause PREMIERS BARGAIN ALL NIGHT Brian Mulroney gets a deal.
The deal must be ratified in the provincial legislatures. Elijah Harper, an MLA in Manitoba, is outraged that First Nations peoples and Aboriginal peoples were not consulted during the Meech Lake debate. He stages a filibuster that prevents Manitoba from approving the Meech Lake deal. Meech Lake needed to be approved by all of the provinces by the end of the legislative year. It can’t be.MEECH LAKE DIES.
CHARLOTTETOWNACCORD (1992): MULRONEY TRIES AGAIN
- Things for Provinces: Forestry, Mining, Cultural policy, natural resources Guaranteed Funding for Provincial Programs Quebec gets 3 of 9 Supreme Court justices, guaranteed - Other things: Aboriginal self-government Quebec as a "distinct society" Senate reformed: 6 seats for each province, 1 for each territory, some seats for Aboriginal voters Reduced senate powers Double Majority of French Canadian seats Fairer allocation of HoC seats
FOR IT • WOMEN • CONSERVATIVES, LIBERALS, NDP • FIRST NATIONS • BUSINESS GROUPS • ENGLISH CANADA • 50% OF QUEBEC AGAINST IT FORMER PRIME MINISTER PIERRE TRUDEAU PRESTON MANNING'S NEW REFORM PARTY opposed distinct society QUEBEC SOVEREIGNTISTS SAID QUEBEC NEEDS MORE POWERS
MULRONEY’S OTHER GOAL:Closer ties with the United States PRESIDENTRONALDREAGAN Using ground and space-based systems to prevent US from attack by nuclear ballistic missiles. BRIAN
MULRONEY’S OTHER GOAL:Closer ties with the United States • negotiated in 1988 with Bush Sr. • very controversial in ’88 election. More Canadians voted for anti-NAFTA parties but Conservatives won more seats • Incoming President Bill Clinton introduced additional clauses on environment. PRESIDENTGEORGE BUSH (Sr.) BRIAN
Had held four cabinet portfolios prior to becoming PM, giving her more experience than 11 of 18 men who were PM before her, including Mulroney, Joe Clark and Pierre Trudeau. Canada’s first woman PM. First Baby Boomer prime minister. Took over from Brian Mulroney as PM in June 1993. Lasted 5 months as PM. KIM CAMPBELL:1993
1993 ELECTION RESULTS REGIONALISM BEGINSTO SPLIT THE COUNTRY APART
ERASING THE DEFICIT • Under Jean Chretien and Paul Martin, the Liberals in the 1990s imposed the greatest spending cuts in Canadian history. • Started with $42 billion deficit. • Slashed corporate and personal taxes • Paid down billions of the national debt.