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New standard = 75 ppb. Air Pollution. Definitions History - Patterns & Principles Examples: SO 2 , Acid Rain, Ozone, Particulates (Aerosols and soot). Definitions. Air pollution Standards Acute versus chronic Point versus non-point sources.

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air pollution

New standard =

75 ppb

Air Pollution

Definitions

History - Patterns & Principles

Examples: SO2, Acid Rain, Ozone, Particulates (Aerosols and soot)

definitions
Definitions
  • Air pollution
  • Standards
  • Acute versus chronic
  • Point versus non-point sources
  • Asbestos, Pb, O3, Hg, Particulates, SO2, NOx, CO, 188 toxins
  • Global: Acid rain, climate change, O3 (stratospheric)
  • Health and Ecosystem Protection: acid rain, UV, Visibility
  • Indoor air: asthma, CO, mold, radon, smoke
  • Acute: High concentrations, short- or long-term, immediate health effects or visible damage
  • Chronic: Low concentrations, long-term, produces weakened organisms
  • Primary: Human Health
  • Secondary: Services and Facilities
  • Visibility
crude examination of history

2008

‘Present’

-3300 BC

-5300 YBP

Climate Change

Ötzi - man

Long-distance

Transport

Ozone

Ozone-CO2 interactions

Particulates

(aerosols & soot)

Heavy metals

Crude Examination of History

Takehome lessons:

Presence since fire (or longer)

Natural ---- Anthropogenic

In your face, simple, acute

Everywhere, pervasive, chronic, complex

Role of development, technology

tzi der mensch aus dem eis
Ötzi - der Mensch aus dem Eis

Arsenic

Copper

http://www.viewzone.com/oetzi.html

crude examination of history1

Industrial Revolution

-3300 BC

-5300 YBP

Acute

Local

Point

SO2

Ötzi - man

Crude Examination of History

Today

Impacts: Individual, human health

Visible damage

black smoke

north america s largest sources of so 2
North America’s Largest Sources of SO2
  • Sudbury, Ontario, Canada (1883 to present)
  • Copper Hill/Duck Town, Tennesse (Pre-European to 1983)
  • ASARCO Smelter - Tacoma (1890 - 1985)
  • Anaconda Smelter - MT (1884 - 1980)
  • Smelterville/Kellogg, Idaho (1888 - 1981)
  • Trail BC
history continued sudbury

1990’s

Further

Reductions

1972

Super

Stack

1250’

Acute to Chronic

Local to Distant

Simple to Complex

History Continued - Sudbury

Smelting of Nickel & Copper

Point Source

1890

Ground

Level

Roasting

Beds

1883

First Mine

1928

Roasting

Beds - gone

Tall stacks

http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/sudbury/air_quality/index.htm

sudbury ecological effects acute point source air pollution principle

I

I - Visible Damage on sensitive species

II

III

II - Sensitive tree species dies, other trees show deformed crowns

IV

III - Shrubs and herbaceous plants die

IV - Only most tolerant plants alive

Sudbury - Ecological EffectsAcute, Point-Source Air Pollution: Principle

Stages of Acute Air Pollution Damage

+

90 miles

7000 Lakes

Waste Land

crude examination of history2

-3300 BC

-5300 YBP

Ötzi - man

Crude Examination of History

2008

‘Present’

Age of the Automobile

Beginning of

significant regulations

Climate Change

Chronic

Dispersed

Non-point

Complex

Smog

Acid Precipitation

Long-distance

Transport

Ozone

Ozone-CO2 interactions

Particulates

(aerosols & soot)

Heavy metals

Regulations/Laws

transition from acute point source local to chronic non point source or multiple distant
Transition from Acute, Point Source, Local to Chronic, Non-point source (or multiple), Distant
  • Acid Precipitation
  • Result of transferring problem from local to distant
  • Application of technologies to reduce smoke and soot
  • Takes incredible detective work, especially with terrestrial vs. aquatic systems
  • Greatest financial impact is on structures
smog and la
Smog and LA

≤ 60 ppb

> 125 ppb

ozone formed
Ozone Formed
  • Correct precursors
  • Sun light, warm temperatures
  • Inversion
general principle
General Principle

• Chronic levels of a pollutant do not kill humans, or plants outright; weaken.

• A weakened person or plant --

Plant: its productivity or ability to make biomass decreases. How might this affect a trophic pyramid or prices of food?

Human: Immune system compromised

• Other stressors

• THEN some other factor usually kills the human or plant.

today
Today

• Laws and Regulations: Clean Air Act of 1970 and most recent modifications

• Combinations of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide.

• Long-distance transport

• Soot and aerosols

• Yoram’s lecture: Cap and trade model for controlling SO2

crude examination of history3

-3300 BC

-5300 YBP

Ötzi - man

Crude Examination of History

2008

‘Present’

Climate Change

Long-distance

Transport

Ozone

Ozone-CO2 interactions

Particulates

(aerosols & soot)

Heavy metals

climate problems global change air pollution 21st century
Climate Problems/Global Change/Air Pollution 21st Century
  • Greenhouse gases: global warming (CO2, CFCs, NOx, CH4, H20)
  • Air pollution: NOx, SO2, haze, aerosols, O3, heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd), organic compounds
  • Ozone depletion: O3
in the article by travis and carleton 2002 they used the abbreviation dtr dtr
In the article by Travis and Carleton (2002), they used the abbreviation DTR. DTR = ?
  • Diffuse transmitted radiation
  • Diurnal temperature range
  • Delta transfer
  • Delayed transmission
results

DTR =

Daily temperature range

Results

Tmax - Tmin = DTR; set to zero for 1971 - 2000. Above the line, greater, below the line smaller.

1971 - 2000

mechanism

Contrails

No Contrails

No Contrails

Contrails

Mechanism

Warmer

Colder

Day

Day

Night

Night

slide24

V. Ramanathan in his testimony before Congress maintains that BC has the following characteristics: (select the false statement; three statements are true)

  • Is spread rapidly
  • Has major health impacts
  • Has a major impact on global warming
  • Has a relatively long atmospheric life-time
aerosols bc and climate change

Global

Dimming

The good old days

Aerosols

Aerosols & Soot

Aerosols, BC and Climate Change

Day

synthesis

Aerosols

Acid precipitation

Greenhouse gases

SO4=

SO4=

NO3-

NO2

Synthesis

SO2

CH4

CO2

N2O

Carbon Cycle

Sulfur Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

Combustion

N - cycle processes

Biotic production

of reduced sulfur

gases by bacteria

Volcanoes

Combustion

Photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition/fire fossil fuels/biofuels

summary
Summary
  • Definitions
  • Principles
  • History
  • Dan Jaffe’s Lecture on Wednesday
    • Long-distance transport
    • Tighter regulations/standards
  • Yoram’s lecture on Friday
    • Cap and trade
    • Taxes
orphaned slides from previous lectures
Orphaned Slides from previous Lectures
  • Emphasis on Acid Precipitation
  • What it is
  • How it impacts ecosystems
acid rain 1

SO4=

NO3-

H+

Acid Rain - 1

http://www.umac.org/ocp/4/info.html

acid rain 2
Acid Rain - 2

Bottomline:

• H+ is being added

• SO4= is being added

• NO3- is being added

crude examination of history4

2008

‘Present’

Industrial Revolution

Age of the Automobile

-3300 BC

-5300 YBP

Climate Change

Chronic

Dispersed

Non-point

Complex

Smog

Acid Precipitation

Acute

Local

Point

SO2

Ötzi - man

Long-distance

Transport

Ozone

Ozone-CO2 interactions

Particulates

(aerosols & soot)

Heavy metals

Crude Examination of History

Impacts: Individual, human health

Non-human impacts

Visibility

Regulations/Laws

Issues of Social Justice

acid rain effects on forest aquatic ecosystems major detective s job

• Shallow rooted trees and plants

Acid Rain - Effects on Forest & Aquatic Ecosystems: Major Detective’s job

Where do plants get their

required water and nutrients?

CO2 - air

N - soil & decomposition & input of NO3

Other minerals (Ca, Mg, K) - decomposition & weathering

continued

Chemical &

Physical

Secondary minerals (clays)

Rocks (minerals)

Weathering

Parent material

Climate

Topography

Vegetation

Time

Parent

Material

Continued

• Geology of parent material

• Certain soils are more susceptible to acid rain

• Low soil carbon - poor acid buffering capacity

continued1

Parent

Material

Continued

• H+ acts to remove K+, Mg+, Mn+, Ca++

• NO3- combines with K+, Mg+, Mn+, Ca++

• Combination is very soluble, leaches out

• If H+ very high, then Al+++ is removed.

Clay - Ca++

Organic matter - K+

Clay - H+ Ca++NO3-

Organic matter -H+ K+ NO3-

Clay - H+Al+++

Organic matter -H+