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Matter Unit. Periodic Table Notes. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907). 1894-1918. Ancient Times. H. He. Midd. -1700. 1923-1961. 1965-. 1735-1843. 1843-1886. Li. Be. B. C. N. O. F. Ne. Na. Mg. Al. Si. P. S. Cl. Ar. K. Ca. Sc. Ti. V. Cr. Mn. Fe.

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Matter unit

Matter Unit

Periodic Table Notes


The periodic table
The Periodic Table

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907)


Matter unit

1894-1918

Ancient Times

H

He

Midd. -1700

1923-1961

1965-

1735-1843

1843-1886

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

Discovering the Periodic Table

Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989


Elements are arranged

Vertically intoGroups

Horizontally IntoPeriods

Elements are arranged:




Each atom of a group has the same number of electrons in its outermost shell
Each atom of a group has the same number of electrons in its outermost shell.

  • An example…

  • Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level.

    • The number of “valence” electrons in an atom affects the way an atom bonds.

    • The way an atom bonds determines many properties of the element.

    • This is why elements within a group usually have similar properties.


The group 2 atoms all have 2 electrons in their outer shells
The outermost shellgroup 2 atoms all have 2 electrons in their outer shells

Be (Beryllium)

Atom

Mg (Magnesium) Atom


If you looked at an atom from each element in a period
If you looked at an atom from each element in a outermost shellperiod

you would see…


Each atom of the period has the same number of electron shells or energy levels
Each atom of the period has the same number of electron outermost shellshells or energy levels.

An example…


The period 4 atoms each have 4 electron containing shells
The outermost shellperiod 4 atoms each have 4 electroncontaining shells

4th Shell

K (Potassium)

Atom

Kr (Krypton)

Atom

Fe (Iron) Atom


Each group has distinct properties
Each group has distinct properties outermost shell

  • The periodic Table is divided into several groups based on the properties of different atoms.


Matter unit

http://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.htmlhttp://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.html

Alkali Metals

  • Soft, silvery colored metals

  • Very reactive!!!


Group 1a alkali metals
Group 1A: Alkali Metalshttp://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.html

Reaction of potassium + H2O

Cutting sodium metal

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m55kgyApYrY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active


Alkali metals reacting with water
Alkali Metals reacting with water:http://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.html

  • Li (Lithium)– least reactive

  • Na (Sodium)

  • K (Potassium)

  • Rb (Rubidium)

  • Cs (Cesium)–more reactive

What would you expect from Francium?!?!


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Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metalshttp://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.html

Magnesium

Magnesium oxide


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Alkaline Earth Metalshttp://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.html

  • Silvery-White Metals

  • Fairly reactive

  • Many are found in rocks in the earth’s crust


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Transition Metalshttp://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.html

  • Most are good conductors of electricity

  • Malleable (easily bent/hammered into wires or sheets)



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  • Metalloids in them?

  • Lie on either side of the “staircase”

  • They share properties with both metals and non-metals

  • Si (Silicon) and Ge (Germanium) are very important “semi-conductors”


Matter unit

Metalloids in them?

Metals and Nonmetals

H

1

He

2

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Nonmetals

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

METALS

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103



Matter unit

Nonmetals in them?

  • Brittle

  • Do not conduct electricity


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Halogens in them?

  • Nonmetals

  • Most are poisonous

  • Fairly reactive – react with alkali metals (eg) Na+ and Cl-


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Chlorine Gas was used as a chemical weapon during World War I.

It was used by the Germans in World War II.


Chlorine gas
Chlorine Gas I.

  • The Germans were the first to use Chlorine gas at Ypres in 1915

  • Chlorine gas is a lung irritant

  • The symptoms of gas poisoning are bright red lips, and a blue face

  • People affected die a slow death by suffocation

  • Decades later men who thought they had survived the war died from lung diseases such as Emphysema



Matter unit

Noble Gases I.

  • Nonmetals

  • Unreactive

  • Gases at room temperature


Jellyfish lamps made with noble gases artist eric ehlenberger
Jellyfish lamps made with noble gases I.artist- Eric Ehlenberger


Colors noble gases produce in lamp tubes
Colors Noble Gases produce in lamp tubes: I.

  • Ne (Neon): orange-red

  • Ar (Argon): pale lavender

  • He (Helium): pale peach

  • Kr (Krypton):pale silver

  • Xe (Xenon): pale, deep blue


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  • The actinide series is much different.

  • They are all radioactive

  • Some are not found in nature.

  • Some of the elements with higher atomic numbers have only been made in labs.

Lanthanide Series

Actinide Series


Elements that exist as diatomic molecules
ELEMENTS THAT EXIST AS I.DIATOMIC MOLECULES

Remember:

The “GENS”

These elements exist as PAIRS when ALONE.

Hydrogen (H2)

Nitrogen (N2)

Oxygen (O2)

Halogens

(F2, Cl2, Br2, I2)

(P4 and S8)


Matter unit

Diatomic Elements I.

H2

He

Ne

Li

O2

F2

N2

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl2

S

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br2

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I2

Tl

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr