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NLP Tools

NLP Tools. By : Asef pourmasoumi Hossein Kamyar. Supervisor : Dr. Kahani. Sentence splitter & Tokenizer Stemming Discourse analysis Coreference Resolution Named entity recognition (NER) Natural language generation Natural language understanding Part of speech tagging (POS)

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NLP Tools

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  1. NLP Tools By : Asefpourmasoumi HosseinKamyar Supervisor : Dr. Kahani

  2. Sentence splitter & Tokenizer • Stemming • Discourse analysis • Coreference Resolution • Named entity recognition (NER) • Natural language generation • Natural language understanding • Part of speech tagging (POS) • Optical character recognition (OCR) • Semantic role labeling (SRL) • Parsing & Chunker • Relationship extraction • Question answering • Text Summarization • Summarization Evaluation NLP Tasks

  3. Machine Translation • Sentiment analysis • Speech recognition • Speech segmentation • Topic segmentation • Word sense disambiguation • Text simplification • Text-to-speech • Query expansion • RTE • Text to image • Clustering & Classification & IR • And … NLP Tasks

  4. Sentence breaking ,sentence boundary disambiguation • GATE • UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS • Sentence Segmentation tool • downloadlink :http://cogcomp.cs.illinois.edu/page/tools_view/2 • UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD • including the part-of-speech (POS) tagger, the named entity recognizer (NER), the parser, and the coreference resolution system. • download link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/corenlp.shtml • MontyTagger • link : http://web.media.mit.edu/~hugo/montylingua/ • Ling Pipe • OpenNLP • link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html • Natural Language Toolkit • open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux. • link : http://www.nltk.org/download Sentence splitter & Tokenizer

  5. Oleander Porter's algorithm - stemming library in C++ released under BSD • Lovins stemming algorithm - with source code in a couple of languages • Porter stemming algorithm - including source code in several languages • Lancaster stemming algorithm - Lancaster University, UK • UEA-Lite Stemmer - University of East Anglia, UK • Themis - open source IR framework, includes Porter stemmer implementation (PostgreSQL, Java API) • Snowball - free stemming algorithms for many languages, includes source code, including stemmers for five romance languages • PTStemmer- A Java/Python/.Net stemming toolkit for the Portuguese language • jsSnowball- open source JavaScript implementation of Snowball stemming algorithms for many languages • hindi_stemmer - open source stemmer for Hindi • czech_stemmer - open source stemmer for Czech Stemming

  6. CR determines which words("mentions") refer to the same objects ("entities"). • Illinois has online & downloadable CR • UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD • integrated in the Stanford suite of NLP tools, StanfordCoreNLP. • download link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/corenlp.shtml • Ling Pipe • OpenNLP • link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html • Natural Language Toolkit • download link : http://www.nltk.org/download • BART (Beautiful Anaphora Resolution Toolkit.) • download link : http://www.bart-coref.org/ • Guitar (A General Tool for Anaphora Resolution) • download link : http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/Research/nle/GuiTAR/ Coreference Resolution

  7. Given a stream of text, determine which items in the text map to proper names, such as people or places, and what the type of each such name is (e.g. person, location, organization). • Illinois • Stanford Natural Language Processing Group • link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/CRF-NER.shtml • downloadable (written in java) English & German. • Ling Pipe • OpenNLP • link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html • Natural Language Toolkit • link : http://www.nltk.org/download Named entity recognition

  8. Given a sentence, determine the part of speech for each word. Many words, especially common ones, can serve as multiple parts of speech. For example, "book" can be a noun ("the book on the table") or verb ("to book a flight"). • Illinois • Stanford Natural Language Processing Group • link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tagger.shtml • downloadable (written in java). English, Arabic, Chinese. • Ling Pipe • OpenNLP • link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html • MontyTagger • link : http://web.media.mit.edu/~hugo/montylingua/ • Natural Language Toolkit • open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux. • link : http://www.nltk.org/download • GATE • And many others in http://nlp.stanford.edu/links/statnlp.htm Part of speech tagging

  9. Illinois has online & downloadable SRL • MontyTagger • Link : http://web.media.mit.edu/~hugo/montylingua/ • ASSERT (Automatic Statistical SEmantic Role Tagger) • Link : http://cemantix.org/assert.html • Downloadable, OS : RedHat Linux • It is designed and implemented by Sameer S. Pradhan, with some initial contribution from Daniel Gildea at the University of Rochester. • ASSERT is trained to tag: i) PropBank arguments, ii) Thematic roles, and iii) Opinions, in plain text. • SwiRL: The Semantic Role Labeler • English constructed on top of full syntactic analysis of text using Eugene Charniak's parser. • SwiRL trains one classifier for each argument label using a rich set of syntactic and semantic features. • Link : http://www.surdeanu.name/mihai/swirl/ • CoNLL-2005 Shared Task: Semantic Role Labeling: Systems & Results • Link : http://www.lsi.upc.edu/~srlconll/st05/st05.html Semantic role labeling

  10. Determine the parse tree (grammatical analysis) of a given sentence • Illinois • Stanford • link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tagger.shtml • downloadable (written in java),English , Arabic, Chinese. • OpenNLP • link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html • Natural Language Toolkit • link : http://www.nltk.org/download Parser & Chunker

  11. List of question-and-answer websites Question answering

  12. Produce a readable summary of a chunk of text. Often used to provide summaries of text of a known type, such as articles in the financial section of a newspaper. • http://topicmarks.com/dashboard • http://www.tools4noobs.com/summarize/ • http://www.uoguelph.ca/~wdarling/summ/ • Other • http://swesum.nada.kth.se/index-eng.html • http://www.summarization.com/mead/ • http://textcompactor.com/ • Multi-document online text summarizer • http://newsfeedresearcher.com/ • http://iresearch-reporter.com/ • http://shablast.com/ Automatic Summarization

  13. ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation) • Link : http://berouge.com/default.aspx • Downloadable, written in Perl. • MEADeval: (An Evaluation Framework for Extractive Summarization) • Link: http://tangra.si.umich.edu/clair/meadeval/ • Downloadable, written in Perl Summarization Evaluation

  14. EGYPT system System from 1999 JHU workshop. Mainly of historical interest. • GIZA++ and mkcls Franz Och. C++. GPL. • ThotPhrase-based model building kit • PhramerAn Open-Source Java Statistical Phrase-Based MT Decoder • MosesA new open-source phrase-based MT decoder with functionality beyond Pharaoh. • SRILM : For creating n-grams. • Syntax Augmented Machine Translation via Chart Parsing Andreas Zollmann and AshishVenugopal • Rewritea decoder for IBM Model • BLEU scoring tool for machine translation evaluation • Free, but getting them requires hassle • Pharaoh decoder Philip Koehn, ISI. • MTTKMachine Translation Tool Kit. Deng and Byrne. • Stanford : Entailment-based MT evaluation • Link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/mteval.shtml • Downloadable (written in java) • It is based on the Stanford RTE system, which performs inference between two short texts, determining if one is entailed by the other. We use this inference mechanism to predict the adequacy of MT system output at the segment level compared to a reference translation. Machine Translation

  15. Given a chunk of text, separate it into segments each of which is devoted to a topic, and identify the topic of the segment. • Stanford • Link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tmt/tmt-0.3/ • Downloadable (written in java) • English , Arabic, Chinese version 14.7MB, • Features • Import and manipulate text from cells in Excel and other spreadsheets. • Train topic models (LDA and Labeled LDA) to create summaries of the text. • Select parameters (such as the number of topics) via a data-driven process. • Generate rich Excel-compatible outputs for tracking word usage across topics, time, and other groupings of data. Topic segmentation

  16. Many words have more than one meaning; we have to select the meaning which makes the most sense in context. For this problem, we are typically given a list of words and associated word senses, e.g. from a dictionary or from an online resource such as WordNet. • WordNet::SenseRelate • Link : http://senserelate.sourceforge.net/ • Two different word sense disambiguation algorithms, • WordNet-SenseRelate-AllWords :Assigns a sense to each word in a text. • WordNet-SenseRelate-TargetWord : Assigns a sense to a given target word. • WordNet-SenseRelate-WordToSet : Assigns the meaning to a word that is most related to a given set of words. • They carry out word sense disambiguation by measuring the semantic similarity between a word and its neighbors. In particular, a word is assigned the sense that is most related to its neighbors. • GWSD is a system for unsupervised all-words graph-based word sense disambiguation • Link : http://lit.csci.unt.edu/~rada/downloads/GWSD/GWSD.1.0.tar.gz Word sense disambiguation

  17. List of Toolkits

  18. List of Toolkits

  19. LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium) linkand its catalogue by year. Email: ldc@ldc.upenn.edu. Provides the largest range of corpora on CD-ROM. Cost ranges from cheap (e.g., ACL-DCI disk) to pricey. CDs can be purchased individually; institutions can become members and receive discounts on CDs. • European Language Resources Association linkand its catalogue. Distribution agency is ELDA. Rapidly growing collection of materials in European languages. • ICAME (International Computer Archive of Modern English) linkSells various corpora (including Brown and London-Lund). • Reuters @ NIST linkReuters corpora are now distributed by NIST. • TRACTOR linkTELRI Research Archive of Computational Tools and Resource. Corpora, many multilingual, in European community languages. • CLR (Consortium for Lexical Research) link. Focuses more on language processing tools and lexicons, but does have some corpora. • OTA (Oxford Text Archive) linkProvides mainly literary texts. Has a bright new web site. Most materials are available on the web or by anonymous ftp to ota.ox.ac.uk. • Leipzig Corpora Collection linkSentence collections in MySQL database for 17 mainly European languages. Corpora

  20. BNC (British National Corpus) linkA 100 million word corpus of British English And now, an XML edition. • European Corpus Initiative Multilingual Corpus I (ECI/MCI)linkA 98 million word corpus, covering most of the major European languages, as well as Turkish, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, and Malay. Cheap. • Survey of English Usage linkAt the Department of English Language and Literature at University College London. Includes the British part of ICE, the International Corpus of English project. Now available tagged, and parsed for function. 83,419 sentences. Includes ICECUP, dedicated retrieval software. Also, Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English (800,000 words, tagged and parsed, half from ICE-GB and half from London-Lund). • International Corpus of English (ICE)linkMillion word collections of English from various world Englishes: ICE-NZ, ICE-HK, ICE-East Africa, etc. • Corpora held by Lancaster University linkThis link provides its own annotations. • The European Language Activity Network linkPromises a uniform query language for accessing corpora in all EU languages -- but isn't quite there yet. • Talkbanklink. Rich video and transcripts. Corpora

  21. Academic departments with computational linguistics programs • Institute for Communicating and Collaborative Systems at the University of Edinburgh • Institute for Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania • Computational Linguistics & Phonetics at Saarland University • Computational Linguistics and Language Technology at Ohio State University • Stanford Natural Language Processing Group • Computational Linguistics at the University of Washington • Human Language Technology Research Institute at the University of Texas at Dallas • Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (Cognitive Computation Group) • Center for Language and Speech Processing at Johns Hopkins University • Non-university computational linguistics groups • German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence NLP Research Group

  22. Summer Internships and Opportunities • Google Internships • Summer of Code 2008 • custom essay • Data Science Summer Institute NLP Research Sponsors

  23. Blogs • Hal Daume III's NLP blog • LingPipe blog (Bob Carpenter) • Fernando Pereira's Structured Learning blog • Language Log • John Langford's Machine Learning blog • Jamie Pennebaker'sWordwatcher's blog • Video lectures • ACL Video Archive • Videos of Machine Learning lectures • Machine Learning and Cognitive Science 2007 – includes talks by Chris Manning, Sharon Goldwater, John Goldsmith, and others. • MIT workshop: Where Does Syntax Come From? Have We All Been Wrong? – speakers include Chris Manning, Noam Chomsky, ParthaNiyogi, Howard Lasnik and Joshua Tenenbaum. • NIPS 2007 tutorials – including Geoffrey Hinton, Ben Taskar, and Robert Shapire. • Graduate Summer School: Probabilistic Models of Cognition: The Mathematics of Mind (July 9 - 26, 2007) – slides and webcast links of all the talks. A lot of good introductory stuffs on graphical models, Bayesian learning, etc. • Microsoft Research – Videos on Researchchannel. • Google Roundtable Blogs, Video Lectures

  24. General (World Wide): ACL / ANLP / COLING / LREC / HLT • General (USA): NAACL / CICLING • General (Europe): EACL / RANLP / AMLaP • General (Asia): ijc-NLP (formerly, NLPRS) / PACLIC / PACLING / JNLP / IALP • Formal Grammar: FG / LFG / HPSG / TAG+ • Machine Learning: ICML / ECML / NIPS • Statistical NLP: EMNLP / CoNLL / WVLC • Information Retrieval: SIGIR / ECIR • Computational Semantics: IWCS / ICoS • Others: IWPT / WAS / MOL / SENSEVAL / FSMNLP Conferences

  25. NLP/CL • Computational Linguistics link • Natural Language Engineering link • Journal on Research on Language and Computation link • Language Resources and Evaluation link(Formerly Computers and the Humanities) • Research on Language and Computation link(More) • Logic, Language and Information link • Computer Speech and Language link • Linguistic Issues in Language Technology link (LiLT) • Journal of Interesting Negative Results in Natural Language Processing and Machine LearningCfP: Interesting Negative Results in Summarization link • Terminology link • Traitement Automatique des Langueslink • CfP: Special Issue on Scaling NLP link • Texto! link • Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory link • ICAME Journal link Journals

  26. IR/IS • Information Retrieval link • D-Lib Magazine link • Information Processing & Management link • Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology link • Information Science link • Information Development link • Information Design Journal + Document Design link • Speech Processing • International Journal of Speech Technology link • Speech Communication link • Journal of the Acoustical Society of America link • IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing link • IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech & Language Processing linkCfP: Special Issue on New Approaches to Statistical Speech and Text Processing link Journals

  27. Linguistics • Language@Internetlink • Lingua link • Natural Language & Linguistic Theory link • Natural Language Semantics link • Cambridge Occassional Papers in Linguistics link • System link • Speculative Grammarian link • Discourse/Pragmatics • Discourse Processes link • Text & Talk link • Multicultural Discourses link • Journal of Pragmatics link Journals

  28. Language and Identity • Language in Society link • Journal of Language, Identity, and Education link • Language & Intercultural Communication link • BioInformatics • Bioinformatics link • Biomedical Informatics link • Applied Bioinformatics link • Online Journal of Bioinformatics link • In SilicoBiology link • Artificial Intelligence in Medicine link Journals

  29. http://lac.essex.ac.uk/vm • http://comp.ling.utexas.edu/wiki/doku.php/nlp_links • http://www-a2k.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/member/kita/NLP/nlp.html • http://www.coli.uni-saarland.de/~csporled/page.php?id=tools • http://www.elsnet.org/toolslist.html • http://zope.bioinfo.cnio.es/bionlp_tools/all_bionlp_tools • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_language_processing_toolkits Supplementary Links

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