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Urinary System- Kidney. Overall function Osmoregulation (water, salt) Nitrogenous waste in tetrapods Ammonia in amphibians Urea in mammals Uric acid in birds and reptiles Note: uric acid in birds is 3000x more concentrated than blood!. Kidney - Nephron. The functional unit of the kidney

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urinary system kidney
Urinary System- Kidney
  • Overall function
    • Osmoregulation (water, salt)
    • Nitrogenous waste in tetrapods
    • Ammonia in amphibians
    • Urea in mammals
    • Uric acid in birds and reptiles
    • Note: uric acid in birds is 3000x more concentrated than blood!
kidney nephron
Kidney - Nephron
  • The functional unit of the kidney
  • Filters blood to make urine
  • Glomerulus is a network of permeable blood capillaries
    • Afferent glomerular arteriole
    • Efferent glomerular arteriole
kidney nephron1
Kidney - Nephron
  • Bowman’s capsule is a cup-shaped capsule around the glomerulus to catch filtrate
  • Renal corpuscle – Glomerulus plus the Bowman’s capsule since they function as a unit
kidney nephron2
Kidney - Nephron
  • Renal Tubules
  • Increase in complexity with higher vertebrates
  • Function to secrete substances directly from blood to tubule
  • Function for reabsorption from tubules back to bloodstream based on need
kidney nephron3
Kidney - Nephron
  • ADH = Antidiuretic hormone promotes water reabsorption from renal tubules
  • Aldosterone – hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption from renal tubules and water passively follows
  • Renal tubules are countercurrent for maximum efficiency
key points
Key Points
  • Define countercurrent.
  • Look at the following picture and explain how countercurrent is advantageous.
kidney nephron4
Kidney - Nephron
  • Peritubular capillaries pick up substances being reabsorbed from renal tubules
  • Common collecting tubule collects urine from all renal tubules
  • Longitudinal kidney duct
    • Carries urine to cloaca in all but placental mammals
    • Various names for this duct depending on group
kidney types based on embryology
Kidney Types based on Embryology
  • Pronephros
  • Forms from intermediate mesoderm (mesomere) very far cranially
  • Renal tubules are temporary pronephric tubules
  • Pronephric duct carries urine to cloaca
  • Pronephric duct persists in anamniotes but changes its name to Mesonephric duct
kidney types
Kidney Types
  • Mesonephros
  • Middle region of intermediate mesoderm
  • Longitudinal duct is Mesonephric duct (we called it archinephric duct in lab)
  • Functional embryonic kidney in amniotes
  • Adult kidney of anamniotes
kidney types1
Kidney Types
  • Mesonephros
    • Mesonephric tubules invade testes and form the Vasa efferentia which carry sperm from testicle to mesonephric duct
    • Mesonephric duct carries sperm & urine in anamniotes
    • Mesonephric duct in amniotes will only carry sperm & is called the Spermatic Duct or Vas Deferens
kidney types2
Kidney Types
  • Metanephros
  • Caudal-most intermediate mesoderm
  • Becomes the adult amniote kidney
kidney types3
Kidney Types
  • Metanephros – adult amniote kidney
  • Cortex –outer region
  • Medulla – inner region
    • Pyramids
    • Papillae
  • Pelvis – slit-like funnel collecting urine from medulla
kidney types4
Kidney Types
  • Metanephros – adult amniote kidney
  • Ureter = Metanephric duct
  • Carries urine caudally
urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
  • Cyclostomes & Elasmobranchs have none
  • Most fish have a widening of the mesonephric ducts that form the urinary bladder
  • Dipnoans have a bladder that is an outpocketing of the cloaca
urinary bladder1
Urinary Bladder
  • Tetrapods have a urinary bladder that is an outpocketing of the cloaca
  • The urinary bladder then empties into the cloaca in all except placental mammals
urinary bladder2
Urinary Bladder
  • The urinary bladder is formed from the embryonic membrane called the allantois (cloacal derivative) in placental mammals
  • The remnant of the allantois is called the urachus which becomes an umbilical ligament
urinary bladder3
Urinary Bladder
  • In mammals, the urinary bladder is drained by the URETHRA
urinary bladder4
Urinary Bladder
  • Functions:
    • Water reservoir except placental mammals
    • Under ADH control
    • Holding tank in placental mammals
    • Pheromones
    • Marking territory
key points1
Key Points
  • What are two roots that both mean kidney?
  • Can you live without one kidney? Can you live without two? Why or why not?