Observations, Predictions, and Inferences 7-1.3 Explain the reasons for testing one independent variable at a time in a controlled scientific investigation. (observation)
Engage: • List as many observations as you can about the following.
Observations • Gathered information using our 5 senses: • sight, smell, hearing, taste, touch • Two types • Qualitative • Quantitative
Qualitative Observations • DESCRIBE what is observed • “qualitative” = quality (descriptive) • use adjectives! • Example: • The football leather is brown and rough. QL
QuaNtitative Observations • MEASURE what we observe • “quaNtitative” = quaNtity (numbers) • Use numbers to measure something • Example: • The football is 25 centimeters long. QNT
How to Make A Qualitative Observation Quantitative • Observation: the fish is smelly! • Now rate the fish from 1-5 in smelliness to make this observation quantitative
Inferences • Definition: • Explanation for an observation based on past experiences and prior knowledge • Often change with new observations • Inferences help explain observations
Inferences • Observation: • The grass on the school’s front lawn is wet. • Possible inferences: • It rained. • The sprinkler was on. • There is dew on the grass in the morning. • A dog urinated on the grass! • All of these inferences could possibly explain why the grass is wet. They are based on prior experiences.
Inferences • Observation: • The school fire alarm is going off. • Possible Inferences: • The school is on fire. • We are having a fire drill. • A student pulled the fire alarm.
Observation: student is sitting in the office • Inferences: • ? Check for Understanding C.F.U.
Predictions • What you think will happen based on the text, the person/author, and background knowledge. • Educated guess. • Predict the future
Predictions vs. Inferences • Will be proven at the end • May or may not be explained at the end • May not be about what happens next
Guessing Game! Guess whether the following examples are: • observations • inferences • predictions
The bell is ringing. • Observation
The dog is going to burp. • Prediction
There is a lot of red in the painting, so I think the artist was mad. • Inference
The cell phone is making noise. • Observation
The quiz is going to be easy. • Prediction
The dog has 3 legs. • Observation
The kids are smiling so I think they are happy. • Inference
My mom is angry. • Inference
I am going to do all my homework. • Prediction
The cat is on top of the table. • Observation
The fire is moving. • Observation
The fire might be alive. • Inference
The bell is ringing. • Observation • The boy has tear in his eye, so I think he is sad. • Inference • The dog is going to burp. • Prediction • There is a lot of red in the painting, so I think the artist was mad. • Inference • The cell phone is making noise. • Observation • The quiz is going to be easy. • Prediction • The dog has 3 legs. • Observation • The kids are smiling so I think they are happy. • Inference • My mom is angry. • Inference • I am going to do all my homework. • Prediction • The cat is closing its eyes so I think it’s dead. • Inference • The cat is on top of the table. • Observation • The fire is moving. • Observation • The fire might be alive. • Inference