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Education in Singapore. A Response to Economic Challenges & Nation Building. Education during the Colonial Period (1819-1945). Mission Schools – English medium Singapore Free School (1834) – later RI (1963) King Edward VII College of Medicine (1905) Raffles College (1926)

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Education in singapore

Education in Singapore

A Response to Economic Challenges

& Nation Building


Education during the colonial period 1819 1945
Education during the Colonial Period (1819-1945)

  • Mission Schools – English medium

  • Singapore Free School (1834) – later RI (1963)

  • King Edward VII College of Medicine (1905)

  • Raffles College (1926)

  • Vernacular Schools – Chinese, Malay and Tamil

    • Govt support for Malay schools (not all)

    • Role of community – clan associations, businessmen

University

Of

Malaya


Strengths
Strengths

  • Enterprise & pioneering spirit of the various community

     existed entirely on their own resources

  • Preservation of cultural & linguistic differences in Singapore


Challenges
Challenges

  • Education was limited to those who could afford (end of colonial period, >40% were illiterate)

  • Divided along racial lines

  • Due to world events (revolutionary fervor & changes in China in the early 20th C)

     Politicized  threat to the govt


Post war years 1945 1965
Post-War Years (1945-1965)

  • 1947 – Ten-Year Plan

    • Free Education – ages 6-12 yrs

    • To foster capacity for self-govt

      • MT as medium of instruction

      • EL from 3rd year

      • Standardised curriculum

      • Selection for English Primary School

    • Training College

Meanwhile,

Unrests continued


Post war years 1945 19651
Post-War Years (1945-1965)

  • 1955 – Limited Self-Government

    • All-Party Committee

    • Proposed education policy that met the needs of various committees  nationhood  NE

      • Bilingual primary education

      • Trilingual secondary education

      • ECA

      • Teaching of civics

  • Parity of treatment for all 4 language streams

  • Technical education and industrial training emphasized

  • 1959- Policy took shape

  • Emphasis on Maths and Science

  • 1960- 2nd Lang compulsory in Primary School


Challenges of independence
Challenges of Independence

  • Social

  • Lacked built-in reflexes

  • (loyalty, patriotism, shared

  • history/ tradition)

  • Population divided by race,

  • language, religion…

  • - 1964 racial riots

  • Political

  • Confrontasi

  • Clashes with Malaysian leaders

  •  Highlighted our vulnerability

  • Economic

  • Lost Malaysian hinterland

  • Unemployment (double digit)

  • fall in entrepot trade

  • 1967 withdrawal of Br forces

  • Solution?

  • Dual role of education

  • Economic transformation

  • Disciplined cohesive society


Post independence years labour intensive industries 1966 1970s
Post Independence YearsLabour-Intensive Industries(1966-1970s)

  • Aims:

    • Nation Building

    • Economic Development

    • Education for more people

  • Different types of education

  • were provided for different

  • age groups

  • Malay as the National Language

  • Overall increase in student

  • intake at various levels

  • Focus on Mathematics, Science and

  • Technical subjects


Post independence years labour intensive industries 1966 1970s1
Post Independence YearsLabour-Intensive Industries (1966-1970s)

  • Meeting Economic Challenges

  • 1966- Second Language in Secondary schs

  • 1969- Lower Sec – Tech Subject

  • Girls had a choice/ VITB/ Science Labs in all Sec/ SP and NA Tech College

  • Nation Building

    • Pledge taking, flag raising & lowering

    • ECA grades

    • 1969, common curriculum for all Sec 1 & 2 in all 4 language stream schools

  • Improved quality of education

    • Attention to teaching resources, planning (facilities), research, organisation, and evaluation

    • Promote use of Mandarin

    • 1978, SAP schools

    • 1971, GCE ‘O’-levels


Problems
Problems

  • High education wastage

    • Attrition rate 29% for primary

    • 36% for secondary

  • Variation in academic performance

    New Economic Challenges

  • Labour Shortage

  • Competition from Other Countries

    • Lower cost

    • Lower productivity


Industrial restructuring 1980s
Industrial Restructuring -1980s

  • Improved quality of education

    • Streaming introduced to bring out the best in every individual and to reduce dropout rate

    • GEP, 1984

    • Increased investment

      • Building more schools, single-session schools

    • 1988,89 – Independent Schools

  • Higher/ Tertiary education was encouraged

    • Increased intake

    • NU merged with U of Singapore = NUS

    • NTI, 1981 (engineering and technology)

    • 1991, NTU

    • BEST (EL, MA) for large protion of the workforce who have less tha P6 education

  • Relaxed entry to Secondary school


Moving into the 1990s

Moving into the 1990s

Economic Restructuring

What was the focus in the 1990s?


1990s
1990s

  • Further concentration on post secondary and tertiary education

    to develop the manpower needed for the push to high tech and knowledge intensive products and services

  • 1992, SIM – Open U

    • 1997, became privatized

  • 1992, ITE

  • 1993, Edusave

  • 1994, 4th Polytechnic, TP

  • 1994-6, Autonomous schools


1990s1
1990s

  • Twin forces of globalization and technological change

  • Ability-driven

    • Curriculum

    • School environment

    • Teaching service

    • Education structure

    • Education hub

    • Administrative excellence


1990s2
1990s

  • 1997, $2 bil on IT in classrooms

  • IT Masterplan

  • PW

  • NE

  • ECA CCA

  • Post-grad and Arts education encouraged

  • PRIME

  • SEM

  • Cluster Schools

  • Compulsory Education, 2000


Education policies practices in singapore
Education Policies & Practices in Singapore

  • 60s-70s

  • Flag-raising &

  • Pledge-taking

  • Billingualism

  • ECAs

  • Technical Education

  • 80s-early 90s

  • Streaming

  • Moral Values

  • Vocational Traning

  • Schools given

  • Greater Autonomy

  • Late 1990s

  • Caring Thinking

  • & Creative thinking

  • IT

  • NE

  • CIP

  • Compulsory Pri

  • Education (2000)


Education policies practices in singapore1
Education Policies & Practices in Singapore

21st Century

TLLM (2003)

Integrated Programme/ Through Train (2003)

Future Schools (2008)

Specialised Schools

- NUS Maths & Science School

- School of Science & Technology

- School of the Arts

- Singapore Sports School

- Pathlight & Northlight Schools


Education policies practices in singapore2
Education Policies & Practices in Singapore

  • Leveling up for all economic-social classes?

  • Financial Assistance Schemes

  • Government Bursaries

  • Edusave Scheme (1993)

    • to maximise opportunities for all Singaporean children

    • rewards students who perform well or who make good progress

    • provides students and schools with funds to pay for enrichment programmes or to purchase additional resources.


Summing up

Summing Up

What are the features of our education system?

Do you agree with what the government has done so far?

What would you do differently?

http://www.moe.edu.sg/


Practice question

Practice Question

‘Instilling and reinforcing national loyalty through National Education is the main consideration of our education system’.

Do you agree with the statement? EYA