Using Disk Defragmenter Effectively • Run Disk Defragmenter when the computer will receive the least usage. • Educate users to defragment their local hard disks. • Analyze the target volume before you install large applications. • After you delete a large number of files or folders, analyze your hard disk. • Consider performing scheduled network-wide defragmentation from a central location.
Data Compression • Compressed files can be read by and written to any Microsoft Windows-based or MS‑DOS-based application. • NTFS allocates disk space based on the uncompressed file size.
Selecting an Alternate Display Color • You can select a different display color for compressed files and folders. • You can change the display color by selecting Folder Options from the Tools menu.
Copying and Moving Compressed Files and Folders • Copying a file or folder within an NTFS volume • Moving a file or folder within an NTFS volume • Copying a file or folder between NTFS volumes • Moving a file or folder between NTFS volumes • Moving or copying a file or folder to a FAT volume • Moving or copying a compressed file or folder to a floppy disk
Using NTFS Compression • Select file types to compress based on the anticipated resulting file size. • Do not store compressed files in a compressed folder. • Use a different display color for compressed folders and files. • Compress static data rather than data that changes frequently.
Disk Quotas • Disk quotas track and control disk usage on a per-user, per-volume basis. • Disk quotas have several important characteristics. • You can use disk quotas to perform a number of tasks related to monitoring and controlling hard disk space usage.
Determining the Status of Disk Quotas • You can determine the status of disk quotas in the Properties dialog box for a disk. • The traffic light colors indicate the status of disk quotas.
Enforcing Disk Quotas • You can configure the disk space limit and the warning level for one or more specific users. • You can monitor usage for all users who have copied, saved, or taken ownership of files and folders in a volume. • Volume usage is tracked for all users owning files on a volume where the disk quota system is active.
Guidelines for Using Disk Quotas • If necessary, log on as Administrator to install additional Microsoft Windows 2000 components and applications. • You can monitor hard disk usage and generate hard disk usage information without preventing users from saving data. • Set more restrictive default limits for all user accounts, and then modify the limits if necessary. • Set disk quotas on shared volumes to limit storage for users. • Delete disk quota entries for users who no longer store their files on a volume. • Remove files before deleting a quota entry for a user account.
Management Systems and Agents • The network management station (NMS) does not have to run on the same computer as the SNMP agent. • The NMS can request information from SNMP agents. • SNMP agents provide information about activities that occur at the IP network layer and respond to requests for information. • Agents do not originate messages except a trap message that is triggered by a specific event.
Management Information Base (MIB) • A MIB is a container of objects that represent a particular type of information. • All the information that a management system might request is stored in various MIBs. • A MIB defines values for each object it contains. • Each object in a MIB has a unique identifier that contains information.
SNMP Service Properties • You can configure how the SNMP service starts, logs on to the system, and recovers from an abnormal termination of the service or operating system. • You can specify a display name, description, startup type, and start parameters. • The Dependencies tab provides a list of services that depend on the SNMP service and those that the SNMP service depends on.
SNMP Agent Properties • The SNMP agent provides the related management system with information on activities that occur at the IP network layer. • You can configure the agent properties on the Agent tab of the SNMP Service Properties dialog box. • The Agent tab lists the services that you can select.
Trap Properties • SNMP traps can be used for limited security checking. • You can configure trap destinations on the Traps tab of the SNMP Service Properties dialog box.
Security Properties • Send authentication traps • Accepted community names • Community rights • Accept SNMP packets from any host • Only accept SNMP packets from these hosts
Event Viewer • SNMP error handling has been improved in Windows 2000. • Improved error handling is integrated with Event Viewer. • Use Event Viewer if you suspect a problem with the SNMP service.
WINS Service • When querying WINS server MIBs, you might need to increase the SNMP time-out period. • If some WINS queries work and others time out, increase the time-out period.
IPX Addresses • An Error message occurs when the IPX address has been entered incorrectly. • The SNMP service does not recognize an address with a comma or hyphen between the network number and Media Access Control (MAC) address. • The address used for an IPX trap destination must follow the IETF defined 8.12 format.
System Monitor Snap-In • Performance Monitor has been replaced by System Monitor. • The System Monitor snap-in allows you to perform a number of tasks. • You can collect and view extensible data about the usage of hardware resources and the activity of system services. • You can define the data that you want the graph to collect.
Monitoring System and Network Performance • Network activity can influence system performance. • System Monitor enables you to track network and system activity. • You should use specific counters as part of your normal monitoring configuration. • Monitoring network activity involves examining performance data at each network layer. • You should begin with the lowest-level components and work your way up. • Establish a baseline for network performance.
Disk Objects and the Diskperf Utility • Two primary disk objects contain counters in System Monitor: PhysicalDisk and LogicalDisk. • The physical disk performance counters are enabled, and the logical disk performance counters are disabled. • Use the Diskperf utility to enable and disable the counters. • There is a small performance cost for running these counters.
Collecting Performance Data • Collect performance data automatically from local or remote computers. • View logged counter data or export the data.
Using the Performance Logs and Alerts Snap-In • Collect data in a comma-delimited or tab-separated format. • View counter data during collection and after collection has stopped. • Define start and stop times, file names, file sizes, and other parameters. • Manage multiple logging sessions from a single console window. • Set an alert on a counter.
Recording Performance Data • Start and stop logging. • Create trace logs. • Define a program that runs when a log is stopped. • Configure additional settings for automatic logging.
Introduction to Network Monitor • Tracks network throughput in terms of captured network traffic • Monitors the network data stream on the local network segment • Can capture all local traffic or a subset of frames • Captures only those frames sent to or from the local computer • Uses a network driver interface specification (NDIS) feature to copy all frames to its capture buffer
Installing Network Monitor Tools • Network Monitor Tools include the Network Monitor snap-in and the Network Monitor driver. • These tools are not installed by default. • You can use the Add/Remove Programs utility in Control Panel to install the Network Monitor Tools.
Network Monitor Performance Issues • Network Monitor creates a memory-mapped file for its capture buffer. • Although you cannot adjust the frame size, you can store only part of the frame. • You can run Network Monitor in the background to reduce the amount of system resources necessary to operate the program.
Overview of Task Manager • Task Manager provides information about programs and processes running on your computer. • You can use Task Manager to monitor key indicators of your computer’s performance. • The Task Manager interface contains three tabs: Applications, Processes, and Performance. • You can update Task Manager by clicking Refresh Now on the View menu.