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United Nations Civil Military Coordination Course. Characteristics of Military Culture. 19 June 02. OBJECTIVE. Familiarize the audience with the military culture, customs, structure,and capabilities. In addition provide a background of US Military involvement in

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19 June 02


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    1. United Nations Civil Military Coordination Course Characteristics of Military Culture 19 June 02

    2. OBJECTIVE Familiarize the audience with the military culture, customs, structure,and capabilities. In addition provide a background of US Military involvement in disaster/emergency situations.

    3. Outline • Structure • Culture • Mission • Constraints • Coordination • US Military

    4. Military Structure • Military forces vary in structure and mission, but are all organized along similar lines • Uniforms, insignia and medals • Weapons • Command, staff, forces • Army, navy, air force, and others (coast guard, security, emergency response, etc.) • Most militaries have the primary mission of war-fighting (defense or offense) • Secondary missions now span the operational spectrum of peace and war

    5. Organizational Culture • Highly structured, hierarchical • Chain-of-Command/leadership • Authoritarian • Who’s in charge? • Non-democratic • Goal-oriented • What’s the mission? (both specified and implied) • Rules, regulations and doctrine • Standardization • Process and scheduling are adhered to • “Battle Rhythm”

    6. Organizational Culture • Training priority is combat readiness • Battle skills • Physical fitness • Equipment maintenance/operation • Respect for rank, tradition, physical and mental toughness, and age • Strong desire to control • Highly competitive

    7. Organizational Culture • Leaders are taught to be assertive, decisive, tenacious, and confident • “Make a decision and make it now!” • Non-conformity is avoided • Trained to be insensitive (important for battlefield survival) • Trained to be secretive (for operational security) • Operational security concerns lead to a reluctance to share information about planned activities • In-depth information of civilian activities is expected to be provided

    8. Mission • Orders • Mission statement • End State • Mission Creep • Force Protection • Comparatively high standard of support, number of personnel • Self-sustaining and self-reliant as possible • Logistics can be used to assist dislocated civilians • Standard of support is based on national policy • Unit Types

    9. PRE-CONFLICT CONFLICT POST-CONFLICT COMBAT OPERATIONS PEACETIME OPERATIONS PEACETIME OPERATIONS Spectrum of war-peace

    10. Military Constraints • International constraints: • Law of Land Warfare • Geneva and Hague Conventions • Other treaties • National Constraints: • Law • Civilian control • Internal Constraints: • Rules of Engagement (ROE) • Doctrine, Regulations • Culture

    11. Coordination: Meetings • Highly structured, efficiently managed, succinct presentations • In meetings with relief personnel the military will expect resolution • Military personnel may attempt to assert leadership if leadership seen as weak in or inefficient • A perceived lack of progress may lead to frustration, loss of interest, or nonparticipation • Assignment of specific responsibility • Perceived efficiency, organization, responsibility, or competence elicits a positive reaction • Operational weakness elicits harsh judgment

    12. US Military Structure

    13. Chain of Command • The US Department of Defense receives direction from National Command Authorities (NCA- the President of the United States, and Secretary of Defense) • NCA direction is passed to the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) • Consists of the Chairman and the chiefs of staffs of various services (Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force) • The Chairman directs the geographic commanders to carry out operational activities

    14. Chain of Command • The US military divides the world up into five areas of responsibility (AORs): • Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) • European Command (EUCOM) • Pacific Command (PACOM) • Central Command (CENTCOM) • Northern Command (NORTHCOM • Each AOR has a ‘Combatant Commander’

    15. Structure US Southern Command USSOUTHCOM USARSO NAVSOUTH MARFORSOUTH USAFSOUTH SOCSOUTH

    16. CINC Authority During Humanitarian Relief Operations • Combatant Commanders are responsible for all US military operations within their AOR • Combatant Commanders are legally authorized to take unilateral action on what they deem to be a humanitarian relief situation • NCA guidance is almost always sought • Coordinate with the US ambassador(s) required

    17. Humanitarian Assistance Survey Team (HAST) • Combatant Commanders may deploy a HAST to assess existing conditions after a disaster and determine the need for military forces • HAST focus: • Requirements for military support to the relief effort • Ability of affected country to handle follow-on military forces (e.g. airport or seaport capabilities) • Works with Department of State assets • Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) • Disaster Assistance Response Teams (DART) • Embassy Country Team

    18. Joint Task Force (JTF) • The Combatant Commander typically sets up a JTF for the field management of large military activities • JTF is established when: • Mission involves two or more military services on a significant scale • Requires close integration of effort to meet specific military objectives • The JTF commander answers to the US Ambassador(s)

    19. Joint Task Force (JTF) • No Set Organization • Mission Dependent

    20. Joint Task Force (JTF) • Operation Sea Angel (Bangladesh) • Operation Restore Hope (Somalia) • Operation Fuerte Apoyo (CENTAM) • Operation Provide Refuge (Kosovo/Ft Dix) • Operation Fundamental Response (Venezuela)

    21. Joint Task Force (JTF) (USAF ASSETS) C-130 C-141 C-17 C-5 C-17

    22. Joint Task Force (JTF) (ROTARY-WING AVIATION) UH-60 UH-1H CH-47 CH-46

    23. Joint Task Force (JTF) (ENGINEERS) • Mobility • Well Drilling • Prime Power • Vertical Construction

    24. Joint Task Force (JTF) (MEDICAL) • Public Health Assessments • Epidemiology • Post - Traumatic Stress • Treatment and Evacuation • Industrial Hygienists • Medical Logistics • JTF Support

    25. Joint Task Force (JTF) (ROWPU)

    26. Joint Task Force (JTF) (FORCE PROTECTION) • MILITARY POLICE • INFANTRY • HOST NATION

    27. Civil Military Operations • CIVIL AFFAIRS PERSONNEL • CMOC

    28. Civil Affairs (CA) Personnel • Capable of supporting humanitarian assistance operations in many functional areas • Serve as CJTF’s primary advisor on impact of military activities on the civilian sector (or vice versa) • Provide a primary military liaison with local civil authorities in affected country

    29. Civil Military Operations Center (CMOC) • The JTF normally interacts through the CMOC with various civilian agencies • Host nation (HN) • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) • International organizations (IOs) • Other names (CIMICC, HACC, HOC, OSOCC …) • CMOCs are established, as needed • May be military or civilian-run • UN may take the lead role • US Civil Affairs (CA) personnel represent the JTF

    30. Psychological Operations

    31. Psychological Operations (PSYOP) Personnel • PSYOP units convey messages and themes intended to have an impact on selected target audiences • Objective: to influence behavior and attitudes and constrain undesired actions • Provide CJTF with analysis and effectiveness of campaigns and operations • Provide language capability and equipment

    32. CONCLUSION THE MILITARY BRINGS DISCIPLINED PROFESSIONALS, SECURITY, COMMAND AND CONTROL ASSETS, AS WELL AS A ROBUST LOGISTICAL CAPABILITY TO EMERGENCY SITUATIONS. DON’T BE AFRAID TO WORK WITH US, WE ARE ALL IN THE SAME BUSINESS OF SAVING LIVES.

    33. Questions? http//www.southcom.mil/ LTC JERRY TIMONEY USARSO, G3, H&CA DIV. (787) 707-5737 timoneyg@usarso.army.mil