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General Observation Period (GOP). Susanne Crewell & GOP Partner Meteorologisches Institut Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität (LMU) München. GOP Characteristics. General Observation Period from January to December 2007

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General Observation Period (GOP)

Susanne Crewell & GOP Partner Meteorologisches Institut

Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität (LMU) München

GOP Characteristics
  • General Observation Period from January to December 2007
  • Comprehensive data set suitable for testing hypotheses and new modeling techniques developed within the QPF-Program.
  • The GOP encompasses COPS both in time and space - to provide information of all kinds of precipitation types and- to relate the COPS results to a broader perspective (longer time series and larger spatial domain)
GOP Observations
  • Optimized exploitation of existing instrumentation

- routine measurements normally not available to the scientific community - continuous/coordinated operation of existing instrumentations suitable for statistical evaluation

  • Focus on measurements which are available in near real-time
  • Rigorous quality control, cross-checking and error estimation
  • Easy access to data, quicklooks and analysis
  • Close connection with COPS activities

no funding for instrument development or upgrade

near-realtime analysis + first-order model evaluation

Provision of coordinatedobservations and modeloutput to SPP projects(VERIPREC, STAMPF, DAQUA, QUEST,...

WG "Precipitation Process" & data management

Personnel funding for observations only when instruments are moved to other locations

GOP Precipitation Observations
  • High resolution surface precipitation (rain gauges)DWD, various water authorities, environmental agencies and urban networks
  • 3-D hydrometeor distribution (weather radar)-16 C-band DWD radars- polarimetric research radars: POLDIRAD, DLR; DWD Observatory Hohenpeissenberg- C-Band radar Karlsruhe; X-Band radars Bonn & HH- operational radars in neighboring countries
  • Rain drop size distribution (RDSD)- network of vertical pointing Micro Rain Radar (MRR)- in situ disdrometer

Joint objective of COPS WG3 & GOP

Investgation of the differences of the RDSDs over flat terrain including maritime conditions on one hand and over orographically structured terrain on the other hand

GOP Organisation


  • WP-GOP-1 Rain gauges
  • WP-GOP-2 Weather Radar
  • WP-GOP-3 Drop Size Distribution DSD
  • WP-GOP-4 Lidar (aerosol, cloud base, mixing layer height)
  • WP-GOP-5 GPS water vapour column
  • WP-GOP-6 Lightning networks
  • WP-GOP-7 Satellite observations (cloud properties, water vapor, aerosol)
  • WP-GOP-8 Meteorological stations
  • WP-GOP-9 Management


  • to provide information of all kinds of precipitation types
  • to identify systematic model deficits
  • to select case studies for specific problems
  • to relate the COPS results to a broader perspective (longer time series and larger spatial domain)

MRR transsect will be coordinated with POLDIRAD RHI scans during COPS

GOP Network Observations

IWV [kg m-2]

  • Integrated Water Vapor (GPS)about 180 stations within Germanyabout add. 40 in neighboring countriesprocess more french stationsset-up of 5 stations in COPS area for 6 monthsto get a better estimation in the structured terrain
  • Cloud and aerosol vertical information(Lidar networks) - lidar ceilometer observations from institutes & DWD > 100 in Germany- coordinated (regular scheduled) EARLINET (Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, Garmisch, Cabauw, Neuchatel..) with a high quality standard to derive statistical aerosol properties
  • Lightning detection systems- Conventional lightning detection system (BLIDS)- VHF network in Northern Germany - VLF LINET system in Southern G.

July & August 2004

cloud base height [m]

GOP Satellites (FUB + Nowcasting SAF)

a) spatially highly resolved products (250-300 m, polar orbiters)

b) temporal evolution from Meteosat Second Generation (every 15 min.)

Near real-time Radar and Satellite

The Near Real Time (NRT) processing for the GOP and COPS area. The information at FU Berlin is online with a delay of 2 hours (flight mission planning; near real time assimilation,....

Statistical evaluation of water vapour, cloud and precipitation structure

  • extraction of station output (rain gauges, MRR, GPS, ..) togetherwith model output and online visualization
  • diurnal cycle on a monthly basis of all parameters time series at station and maps
  • convective/frontal
  • cell tracking
  • vertical structure (hydrometeor distribution)
  • regional characteristics
  • sub-grid properties
GOP Stations

all Meteorological & Geographical Institutes, Research organisations & NP to contact!

GOP Preparation
  • Establishment of the data base-coordination with DWD and data owners- coordination with COPS campaign data how to set-up and how to get funding
  • Quality control of the observations- rain gauge estimates (UniBonn)- radar and satellite observations (QUEST)- joint effort of data owners
  • Tailoring model output to data available from GOP- definition of model domain, horizontal resolution, boundary conditions...- focus on Lokal-Modell-kürzestfrist (LMK)
  • - preparation of special model output (integration into NUMEX)→ time series in model time step resolution at selected stations→ selected 3D-fields at asynoptic times for satellite/radar comparisons- online visualization of statistical properties from model and observations (diurnal cycle, PDFs,..)

MAP Forecast Demonstration Project

  • long-term evaluation
  • identification of case studies