What do you know? 1. Following Washington was a challenge for President Adams? 2. Adams hoped to improve relations with France by sending delegates to France 3. Adams informed Congress about the XYZ affair. 4. Adams did not want to open peace talks with France. 5. Adams asked Congress to decrease the Navy & Army due to peace. 6. Adams pushed for war against France. 7. In the presidential election of 1796, political parties played a role for the first time. 8. The XYZ affair almost led to war between France and the United States 9. The Democratic-Republican Party strongly supported the Alien & Sedition Act. 10. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions argued that the Alien & Sedition Acts were constitutional.
John Adams Presidency His Presidency, Political Parties, X, Y, Z Affair, Alien & Sedition Acts
The first political parties • Political parties • Groups that help elect people and shape policies • Federalist party • Wanted strong Central Gov. • Supported industry and trade • Democratic – Republican Party • Wanted to limit Federal Gov. • Adams Defeated Jefferson for President
Political atmosphere Republicans called Adams a Royalist Big slap in face for man who was so involved with the Am. Revolution Federalists accused Republicans of favoring the French Adams defeated Jefferson Adams became President Jefferson became Vice President Each from a different political party
Adams As President Most saw Adams as Cold and a distant person Served as a foreign diplomat Leading patriot in Am. Rev. He did lack Washington’s dignity Most respected him for including his opponents Hard work Honesty Intelligence
XYZ Affair In the middle of a dispute with France, Adams took office French did not like Jays Treaty They felt it was an attempt to help British in their war against France Response by France: French seized American ships with Cargo heading to Britain
XYZ Affair First goal= improve relationship with France Adams sent three diplomats to France-French would not meet Talleyrand (foreign minister) would not speak to am. Diplomats
More XYZ affair Talleyrand set up a strange and secret visit from three French agents Told that Talleyrand would only discuss a treaty if the following was met: $250,000 bribe A loan of 12 million dollars Am diplomats refused the demands
Adams and Congress and the People Adams Furious-prepare for war Told Congress peace seeking mission had failed X Y Z were letters substituted for French agents Public outraged rallying cry was Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!
Peace efforts Adams did not want to go to war-Most Federalists did He stunned federalists (his party) by refusing to change his mind Intense pressure Am. And French ships fight in Caribbean Rep. sent to France Eventually peace treaty signed
Alien and Sedition Act Many Federalist sympathized with France Angered Federalists called them Democrats, Mobocrats, and all other kinds of rats. Federalist controlled Congress Passed somelaws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts.
More Alien and Sedition Act Laws said to protect U. S. but intended to crush them opposition to war Most controversial part was Sedition act Forbade anyone form publishing or voicing criticism of the federal government Cancelled protection of freedom of speech and freedom of the press Jefferson & Madison viewed act as misuse of government power
Jefferson and Madison Attacked it at the state level Wrote legislation called Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Argues that Alien and sedition acts were unconstitutional Fed. Gov. could not pass these act –interfered with state gov. Pressured Congress to repeal didn’t happen Allowed to expire within a few years State resolution did not have force of national law but it did show that they can challenge Federal Gov.
Alien And Sedition Acts Why they were passed Federalist controlled congress wanted to: Strengthen Fed. Gov. Silence Republicans Results Discouraged Immigration Led some foreigners already here to leave Convicted 10 republican newspaper editors who had criticized the federalists in Gov. Reaction Opposition to Federal ist party grows Led movement to allow states to overturn federal law
The after affect Hamilton and others rather than cheering because the treaty was made they opposed their own president. As a result: Federalist now split Improved Democratic-Republicans chances of gaining the Presidency in 1800