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Georgia and the American Experience. Chapter 10: The Progressive Era Study Presentation . Georgia and the American Experience. Section 1: The Progressive Movement Section 2: Southern Politics in Action Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights Section 4: Business in Georgia

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    georgia and the american experience
    Georgia and the American Experience

    Chapter 10:

    The Progressive Era

    Study Presentation

    georgia and the american experience1
    Georgia and the American Experience

    Section 1: The Progressive Movement

    Section 2: Southern Politics in Action

    Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights

    Section 4: Business in Georgia

    Section 5: World War I

    slide3

    SS8H7

    The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

    SS8E3

    A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.

    section 1 the progressive movement
    Section 1: The Progressive Movement
    • ESSENTIAL QUESTION:
      • What changes were goals of the progressive movement?
    section 1 the progressive movement1
    Section 1: The Progressive Movement
    • What words do I needtoknow?
      • progressive movement
      • muckraker
      • chain gang
      • labor union
      • strike
      • sweatshop
      • prohibition
      • 18th & 19th Amendments
      • suffragette
    the progressive movement
    The Progressive Movement

    Progressives believe that government is best-equipped to take care of the problems of society.

    prison reform
    Prison Reform
    • 1908: end of convict lease system
    • Work camps and chain gangs replaced the lease system
      • Black-and-white uniforms
      • Chained together
      • Poor food & housing
      • No preparation for life after prison
    • Progressive legislators created the Juvenile Court System
    labor unions
    Labor Unions
    • Low wages in factories (10¢ per hour)
    • Labor Unions organized workers
      • Strikes could halt work in the factory
      • AFL: American Federation of Labor
    • Georgians didn’t support unions – factories were often in small communities where people knew each other
    • Mill towns: factory owner owned the workers’ houses – workers feared losing their homes
    child labor laws
    Child Labor Laws
    • Progressives increased regulations to protect child laborers
      • Minimum wage
      • Compulsory school attendance laws
      • Laws protecting children against work in dangerous places and using dangerous equipment (for example: mines)
      • In Georgia, most child workers in cotton fields or textile factories
      • In the North, child workers were in “sweatshops”
    temperance movement
    Temperance Movement
    • WCTU: Women’s Christian Temperance Movement – wanted to end production and use of alcoholic beverages
    • Carrie Nation – famous for raiding saloons with a hatchet and making speeches against alcohol
    • Progressives in Georgia restricted alcohol sales near schools and churches, and allowed counties to vote to be “wet” or “dry”
    • 1919: 18th Amendment banned manufacture, sale, transport of alcoholic beverages in USA; gave rise to organized crime (“The Mafia”)
    slide15

    Carrie Nation addressing a crowd on the subject of temperance. She often appeared with a Bible in one hand and a hatchet in

    the other.

    women s suffrage
    Women’s Suffrage
    • Suffrage: the right to vote
    • Seneca Falls, NY – famous meeting of suffragettes
    • 1920: 19th Amendment gives women the right to vote – Georgia did not ratify (approve) the amendment
    slide18

    The shirtwaist was a popular garment and was produced at the Triangle Factory.

    A typical garment factory in the early 20th Century.

    slide19

    Fire engines race to the Triangle Building in response to several fire alarms set off when the blaze began.

    slide21

    NYCFD had new ladder trucks but the ladders were 30’ too short to help the victims. Some leaped from the windows and tried unsuccessfully to catch hold of the ladders as they fell.

    slide23

    Policemen stand by bodies and watch helplessly as more victims choose to jump rather than to be burned alive. About 150 people died in the fire, which only lasted approximately 20 minutes.

    slide26

    The building’s fire escape ended abruptly in mid-air, directly above a large glass skylight.

    slide29

    Huge crowds gathered at the makeshift morgue to attempt to identify the remains of their loved ones.

    slide31

    The bodies were propped up in their coffins, lanterns were placed at intervals, and the crowd filed past. Nurses were recruited to turn away the morbidly curious.

    slide32

    Some victims were so disfigured that they had to be identified by jewelry, shoes, or other personal effects.

    slide34

    A news photo of the tragedy shows the collapsed fire escape and the damage done to the factory’s floors in less than 20 minutes.

    slide35

    Massive protests led to an investigation of the disaster and indictments for the Triangle’s owners.

    slide36

    The factory’s owners, Harris and Blanck, were tried for manslaughter. Despite overwhelming evidence, including a locked door knob from the 8thfloor, they only paid a token fine. Within a few weeks they had opened their factory in another building.

    slide37

    What caused the Triangle shirtwaist Fire?

    What were the effects of the fire?

    section 2 southern politics in action
    Section 2: Southern Politics in Action
    • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
      • What were the goals of the populists in Georgia?
    slide39

    SS8H7

    The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

    SS8E3

    A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.

    section 2 southern politics in action1
    Section 2: Southern Politics in Action
    • What words do I need to know?
      • Populist party
      • Australian ballot
      • Rural Free Delivery bill
      • poll
      • Smith-Lever Act
      • Agricultural Extension Service
      • Smith-Hughes Act
      • county unit system
      • plurality
    the people s party
    The People’s Party
    • Populism: political idea that supported the rights of the “common” people in their struggle with the wealthy people
    • Poor farmers and low wage workers were followers of Populists
    • Grange and Farmer’s Alliance worked to protect farmers’ rights – joined with unions to create People’s Party
    • Wanted “Australian ballot” – printed by the government, not local political parties, then collected and locked in ballot boxes
    • Tom Watson, famous Georgia populist, worked for Rural Free Delivery bill to deliver mail to rural areas for free
    slide42

    The Populist (or People's) Party platform in 1892 incorporated a host of popular reform ideas, including:

    • Australian (or Secret) Ballot
    • Popular Election of U.S. Senators
    • Direct Democracy
    • Banking Reform
    • Government Ownership of Railroads
    • Graduated Income Tax
    • Free and Unlimited Coinage of Silver
    • Prohibition
    slide43

    Dorothy represents an individualized ideal of the American people. The brainless Scarecrow represents the Midwestern farmers; Tin Man represents the nation's factory workers, dehumanized by the production line; and the Cowardly Lion represents William Jennings Bryan.

    slide44

    The Munchkins represent “little people” – those with little or no political and economic power.

    slide45

    The Wicked Witch of the East represents eastern financial-industrial interests.

    slide46

    The Winged Monkeys, the unwilling minions of the Witch of the West, represent the Plains Indians.

    slide47

    The witch Glindais a good witch who, unlike her eastern counterpart, understands the power of Dorothy's silver shoes.

    slide49

    The Emerald City represents the capital, Washington. “Oz” is the abbreviation for gold. The yellow brick road represents the gold standard, a “road to nowhere” for Americans.

    georgia s progressive era governors
    Georgia’s Progressive Era Governors
    • Hoke Smith: worked to concentrate political power in the rural counties instead of larger counties and cities
      • white supremacist
      • led passage of law requiring land ownership before a person could vote – excluded many blacks
      • better funding of public schools
      • child labor laws passed
      • Smith-Lever Act (1914): created Agricultural Extension Service to teach improved farming methods
      • Smith-Hughes Act: helped establish vocational schools for youth
    • “Little Joe” Brown: son of Civil War era governor Joseph E. Brown
    the county unit system
    The County Unit System
    • 1917: Neil Primary Act created “county unit system”
    • Plan designed to give small counties more power in state government
    • Smaller counties had more county unit “votes” even though they had fewer voters
    • People could be elected to office without getting a majority of votes
    • Declared unconstitutional in 1962
    section 3 the continuing fight for civil rights
    Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights
    • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
      • In what ways did Georgians fight for civil rights during the progressive era?
    slide53

    SS8H7

    The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

    SS8E3

    A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.

    section 3 the continuing fight for civil rights1
    Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights
    • What words do I need to know?
      • civil rights
      • Jim Crow laws
      • injunction
      • Atlanta Compromise speech
      • lynching
      • Back-to-Africa movement
      • grandfather clause
      • poll tax
      • gerrymander
      • martial law
      • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
      • National Urban League
    section 3 the continuing fight for civil rights2
    Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights
    • What people do I need to know?
      • Booker T. Washington
      • W.E.B. DuBois
      • John & Lugenia Burns Hope
      • Leo Frank
    separate but equal
    Separate But Equal
    • Civil Rights: rights a person has as a citizen
    • “Jim Crow” laws were passed in the South to separate blacks and whites
    • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Supreme Court decision which approved Jim Crow laws – decision in place until 1954
    • Cummings V. Richmond County Board of Education (1899): Supreme Court decision supporting segregated schools in Georgia
    booker t washington
    Booker T. Washington
    • Outstanding civil rights leader of the era
    • President of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
    • Supported good relations between blacks and whites
    • Worked to improve the lives of African Americans through economic independence
    • Believed social and political equality would come with improved economic conditions and education
    • Famous “Atlanta Compromise” speech (1895)
    w e b dubois
    W. E. B. DuBois
    • Professor at Atlanta University
    • Believed in “action” if African Americans and whites were to understand and accept each other
    • Thought Booker T. Washington was too accepting of social injustice
    john hope
    John Hope
    • Civil rights leader from Augusta, GA
    • President of Atlanta University
    • Like DuBois, believed that African Americans should actively work for equality
    • Part of group that organized NAACP
    • Hope’s wife, Lugenia, worked to improve sanitation, roads, healthcare and education for African American neighborhoods in Atlanta
    a loss of voting rights
    A Loss of Voting Rights
    • Laws created to keep African Americans in Georgia from voting
      • Grandfather clause: only those men whose fathers or grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1867 could vote
      • Poll tax: a tax paid to vote
      • Voters had to own property
      • Voters had to pass a literacy test (which was determined by the poll worker and could be different for different people)
      • Gerrymandering: election districts drawn up to divide the African American voters
    race riots in atlanta
    Race Riots in Atlanta
    • 1906: various leaders and newspapers created a climate of anger and fear
    • Two-day riot began with over 5,000 people
    • Martial law: military forces used to control civilians
    • 21 people killed; hundreds wounded
    • Extensive of property damage
    african americans organize
    African Americans Organize
    • NAACP (1909): worked for the rights of African Americans
    • W.E.B. DuBois left Atlanta to work for the NAACP in New York
    • National Urban League formed in 1910
      • Worked to solve social problems of African Americans in cities
      • Assisted people moving from rural South to urban North
    the trial of leo frank
    The Trial of Leo Frank
    • 1913: man accused of killing a 14-year-old employee, Mary Phagan in Atlanta
    • Mr. Frank was a Jewish man from New York
    • Little evidence against Mr. Frank, but he was convicted and sentenced to death
    • Governor John Slayton commuted death sentence to life imprisonment
    • Armed men took Frank from the prison, and he was lynched
    • White supremacist Ku Klux Klan reborn at Stone Mountain as a result
    slide77

    Between 1822 and 1968, 4,472 people (1,297 white, 3,445 black) were lynched in the United States.

    section 4 business in georgia
    Section 4: Business in Georgia
    • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
      • How did Georgia businesses grow during the progressive era?
    slide79

    SS8H7

    The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

    SS8E3

    A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.

    section 4 business in georgia1
    Section 4: Business in Georgia
    • What words do I need to know?
      • scrip
    slide81

    SS8H7

    The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

    SS8E3

    A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.

    section 4 business in georgia2
    Section 4: Business in Georgia
    • What people do I need to know?
      • Alonzo Herndon
      • Asa Candler
      • Morris Rich
    business in georgia
    Business in Georgia
    • 1895: Cotton States and International Exposition
      • 800,000 visitors in three months
      • designed to show economic recovery in the South
      • encouraged investments in southern businesses
    rich s
    Rich’s
    • Famous Atlanta department store
    • Started in 1867 by Morris Rich
    • Known as a store “with heart”
      • took farmers’ produce in payment
      • took teachers’ scrip as money during the Great Depression
    • Grew to be a regional shopping chain; eventually bought out by Macy’s
    slide85

    Coca-Cola

    • Invented in Atlanta in 1885 by John S. Pemberton as a patent medicine
    • Business purchased and expanded by Asa Candler
    • Sold company in 1919 for $25 million
    • Robert Woodruff grew company to billions of dollars in sales each year
    • Woodruff and Candler generous givers to worthy causes
    slide86

    Prohibition gave Coca-cola a huge increase in business. Note the ingredients listed in this old advertisement.

    patent medicines

    atlanta mutual insurance company
    Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company
    • Alonzo Herndon started barber business
    • 1905: Purchased small insurance company and managed it well
    • Now one of the largest African American businesses in the US
    • Worth over $200 million and operates in 17 states
    section 5 world war i
    Section 5: World War I
    • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
      • How did Georgians contribute to World War I?
    slide89

    SS8H7

    The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.

    SS8E3

    A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.

    section 5 world war i1
    Section 5: World War I
    • What words do I need to know?
      • World War I
      • neutral
      • propaganda
      • armistice
    atlanta fire
    Atlanta Fire
    • May 21, 1917
    • Lasted 10-12 hours
    • Seventy city blocks destroyed
    • 6,000-10,000 people left homeless
    world war i 1914 1918
    World War I1914-1918

    President Woodrow Wilson declared that the US would be a neutral country.

    slide93

    How to Start a World War in Seven Easy Steps

    Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in Sarajevo.

    Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which was allied with Russia, so….

    Russia declared war on Austria,

    which was Allied with Germany, so….

    Germany declared war on Russia,

    which was allied with France, so…

    France declared war on Germany, which was allied with the Ottoman Empire, so…

    The Ottoman Empire declared war on France, which was allied with Great Britain, so...

    Great Britain Declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

    The United States entered the war

    In 1917 as a result of

    Germany’s unrestricted

    submarine warfare.

    eugene jacques bullard
    Eugene Jacques Bullard
    • First African American combat pilot – from Columbus, GA
    • Enlisted in French Foreign Legion: 1914
    • Flew combat missions against Germany
    • US Army Air Force refused his services
    the united states enters the war
    The United States Enters the War
    • President Wilson worked to keep the US out of the war
    • 1915: German submarine sank passenger ship Lusitania killing 128 Americans
    • 1917: sub attacks resumed sinking American ships
    • Zimmerman telegram: Germany tried to get Mexico to attack the US
    • Because of unrestricted submarine warfare, Wilson finally joined the Allied powers
    • US economy was its major contribution
    georgia and world war i
    Georgia and World War I
    • ±100,000 Georgians volunteered to join the US armed forces
    • Training in Georgia at Camp Benning, Fort McPherson, and Camp Gordon helped Georgia economy
    • Georgians contributed manufactured goods and farm produce
    • 3,000 young Georgians killed in the war
    • Ended November 11, 1918
    slide99

    WWI Technology

    Thousands of men on both sides died charging machine gun emplacements.

    This German railroad gun required its own train and crew. It had a range of 29 miles.

    slide102

    Specialized aircraft were developed for dropping bombs. Fighters were also developed to defend against bombers and attack enemy fighters.

    slide103

    British Sopwith Camel

    French Nieuport 17

    German Fokker DVII Albatross

    German Fokker Triplane

    slide106

    Poison gas was perhaps the worst weapon used in WWI. Military use of gas was eventually banned by international agreement.