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Georgia and the American Experience

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  1. Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 10: The Progressive Era Study Presentation
  2. Georgia and the American Experience Section 1: The Progressive Movement Section 2: Southern Politics in Action Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights Section 4: Business in Georgia Section 5: World War I
  3. SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8E3 A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.
  4. Section 1: The Progressive Movement ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What changes were goals of the progressive movement?
  5. Section 1: The Progressive Movement What words do I needtoknow? progressive movement muckraker chain gang labor union strike sweatshop prohibition 18th & 19th Amendments suffragette
  6. The Progressive Movement Progressives believe that government is best-equipped to take care of the problems of society.
  7. Prison Reform 1908: end of convict lease system Work camps and chain gangs replaced the lease system Black-and-white uniforms Chained together Poor food & housing No preparation for life after prison Progressive legislators created the Juvenile Court System
  8. Labor Unions Low wages in factories (10¢ per hour) Labor Unions organized workers Strikes could halt work in the factory AFL: American Federation of Labor Georgians didn’t support unions – factories were often in small communities where people knew each other Mill towns: factory owner owned the workers’ houses – workers feared losing their homes
  9. Child Labor Laws Progressives increased regulations to protect child laborers Minimum wage Compulsory school attendance laws Laws protecting children against work in dangerous places and using dangerous equipment (for example: mines) In Georgia, most child workers in cotton fields or textile factories In the North, child workers were in “sweatshops”
  10. Progressives increased regulations to protect child laborers.
  11. Child laborers in a GA textile mill.
  12. Temperance Movement WCTU: Women’s Christian Temperance Movement – wanted to end production and use of alcoholic beverages Carrie Nation – famous for raiding saloons with a hatchet and making speeches against alcohol Progressives in Georgia restricted alcohol sales near schools and churches, and allowed counties to vote to be “wet” or “dry” 1919: 18th Amendment banned manufacture, sale, transport of alcoholic beverages in USA; gave rise to organized crime (“The Mafia”)
  13. Carrie Nation addressing a crowd on the subject of temperance. She often appeared with a Bible in one hand and a hatchet in the other.
  14. Women’s Suffrage Suffrage: the right to vote Seneca Falls, NY – famous meeting of suffragettes 1920: 19th Amendment gives women the right to vote – Georgia did not ratify (approve) the amendment
  15. Triangle: The Fire That Changed America
  16. The shirtwaist was a popular garment and was produced at the Triangle Factory. A typical garment factory in the early 20th Century.
  17. Fire engines race to the Triangle Building in response to several fire alarms set off when the blaze began.
  18. Hoses did not have sufficient pressure to reach the fire on the 8th, 9th, and 10th floors.
  19. NYCFD had new ladder trucks but the ladders were 30’ too short to help the victims. Some leaped from the windows and tried unsuccessfully to catch hold of the ladders as they fell.
  20. Bodies of jumpers are visible against the wall in the background.
  21. Policemen stand by bodies and watch helplessly as more victims choose to jump rather than to be burned alive. About 150 people died in the fire, which only lasted approximately 20 minutes.
  22. Firemen lowered the victims’ bodies to the ground with ropes and pulleys.
  23. Policemen identified bodies by tying tags on the toes.
  24. The building’s fire escape ended abruptly in mid-air, directly above a large glass skylight.
  25. The 9th floor after the blaze.
  26. Policemen gathered the personal effects of the victims.
  27. Huge crowds gathered at the makeshift morgue to attempt to identify the remains of their loved ones.
  28. Placing the bodies in coffins.
  29. The bodies were propped up in their coffins, lanterns were placed at intervals, and the crowd filed past. Nurses were recruited to turn away the morbidly curious.
  30. Some victims were so disfigured that they had to be identified by jewelry, shoes, or other personal effects.
  31. A funeral is held for one of the victims on a rainy day . Others were buried in a mass funeral.
  32. A news photo of the tragedy shows the collapsed fire escape and the damage done to the factory’s floors in less than 20 minutes.
  33. Massive protests led to an investigation of the disaster and indictments for the Triangle’s owners.
  34. The factory’s owners, Harris and Blanck, were tried for manslaughter. Despite overwhelming evidence, including a locked door knob from the 8thfloor, they only paid a token fine. Within a few weeks they had opened their factory in another building.
  35. What caused the Triangle shirtwaist Fire? What were the effects of the fire?
  36. Section 2: Southern Politics in Action ESSENTIAL QUESTION What were the goals of the populists in Georgia?
  37. SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8E3 A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.
  38. Section 2: Southern Politics in Action What words do I need to know? Populist party Australian ballot Rural Free Delivery bill poll Smith-Lever Act Agricultural Extension Service Smith-Hughes Act county unit system plurality
  39. The People’s Party Populism: political idea that supported the rights of the “common” people in their struggle with the wealthy people Poor farmers and low wage workers were followers of Populists Grange and Farmer’s Alliance worked to protect farmers’ rights – joined with unions to create People’s Party Wanted “Australian ballot” – printed by the government, not local political parties, then collected and locked in ballot boxes Tom Watson, famous Georgia populist, worked for Rural Free Delivery bill to deliver mail to rural areas for free
  40. The Populist (or People's) Party platform in 1892 incorporated a host of popular reform ideas, including: Australian (or Secret) Ballot Popular Election of U.S. Senators Direct Democracy Banking Reform Government Ownership of Railroads Graduated Income Tax Free and Unlimited Coinage of Silver Prohibition
  41. Dorothy represents an individualized ideal of the American people. The brainless Scarecrow represents the Midwestern farmers; Tin Man represents the nation's factory workers, dehumanized by the production line; and the Cowardly Lion represents William Jennings Bryan.
  42. The Munchkins represent “little people” – those with little or no political and economic power.
  43. The Wicked Witch of the East represents eastern financial-industrial interests.
  44. The Winged Monkeys, the unwilling minions of the Witch of the West, represent the Plains Indians.
  45. The witch Glindais a good witch who, unlike her eastern counterpart, understands the power of Dorothy's silver shoes.
  46. The Wizard, who "can take on any form he wishes," represents the politicians of the era.
  47. The Emerald City represents the capital, Washington. “Oz” is the abbreviation for gold. The yellow brick road represents the gold standard, a “road to nowhere” for Americans.
  48. Georgia’s Progressive Era Governors Hoke Smith: worked to concentrate political power in the rural counties instead of larger counties and cities white supremacist led passage of law requiring land ownership before a person could vote – excluded many blacks better funding of public schools child labor laws passed Smith-Lever Act (1914): created Agricultural Extension Service to teach improved farming methods Smith-Hughes Act: helped establish vocational schools for youth “Little Joe” Brown: son of Civil War era governor Joseph E. Brown
  49. The County Unit System 1917: Neil Primary Act created “county unit system” Plan designed to give small counties more power in state government Smaller counties had more county unit “votes” even though they had fewer voters People could be elected to office without getting a majority of votes Declared unconstitutional in 1962
  50. Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights ESSENTIAL QUESTION In what ways did Georgians fight for civil rights during the progressive era?
  51. SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8E3 A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.
  52. Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights What words do I need to know? civil rights Jim Crow laws injunction Atlanta Compromise speech lynching Back-to-Africa movement grandfather clause poll tax gerrymander martial law National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) National Urban League
  53. Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights What people do I need to know? Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois John & Lugenia Burns Hope Leo Frank
  54. Separate But Equal Civil Rights: rights a person has as a citizen “Jim Crow” laws were passed in the South to separate blacks and whites Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Supreme Court decision which approved Jim Crow laws – decision in place until 1954 Cummings V. Richmond County Board of Education (1899): Supreme Court decision supporting segregated schools in Georgia
  55. Booker T. Washington Outstanding civil rights leader of the era President of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama Supported good relations between blacks and whites Worked to improve the lives of African Americans through economic independence Believed social and political equality would come with improved economic conditions and education Famous “Atlanta Compromise” speech (1895)
  56. W. E. B. DuBois Professor at Atlanta University Believed in “action” if African Americans and whites were to understand and accept each other Thought Booker T. Washington was too accepting of social injustice
  57. John Hope Civil rights leader from Augusta, GA President of Atlanta University Like DuBois, believed that African Americans should actively work for equality Part of group that organized NAACP Hope’s wife, Lugenia, worked to improve sanitation, roads, healthcare and education for African American neighborhoods in Atlanta
  58. A Loss of Voting Rights Laws created to keep African Americans in Georgia from voting Grandfather clause: only those men whose fathers or grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1867 could vote Poll tax: a tax paid to vote Voters had to own property Voters had to pass a literacy test (which was determined by the poll worker and could be different for different people) Gerrymandering: election districts drawn up to divide the African American voters
  59. Race Riots in Atlanta 1906: various leaders and newspapers created a climate of anger and fear Two-day riot began with over 5,000 people Martial law: military forces used to control civilians 21 people killed; hundreds wounded Extensive of property damage
  60. African Americans Organize NAACP (1909): worked for the rights of African Americans W.E.B. DuBois left Atlanta to work for the NAACP in New York National Urban League formed in 1910 Worked to solve social problems of African Americans in cities Assisted people moving from rural South to urban North
  61. The Trial of Leo Frank 1913: man accused of killing a 14-year-old employee, Mary Phagan in Atlanta Mr. Frank was a Jewish man from New York Little evidence against Mr. Frank, but he was convicted and sentenced to death Governor John Slayton commuted death sentence to life imprisonment Armed men took Frank from the prison, and he was lynched White supremacist Ku Klux Klan reborn at Stone Mountain as a result
  62. Mary Phagan’s dress, hat, shoes, and the cord used to strangle her.
  63. Prison barracks from which Leo Frank was abducted.
  64. The Lynching of Leo Frank
  65. A Postcard Made From a Photograph of the Frank Lynching.
  66. Many participants in lynchings were very proud of what they had done.
  67. Note that children are in the crowd which gathered at the scene of the Frank lynching.
  68. Between 1822 and 1968, 4,472 people (1,297 white, 3,445 black) were lynched in the United States.
  69. Section 4: Business in Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Georgia businesses grow during the progressive era?
  70. SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8E3 A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.
  71. Section 4: Business in Georgia What words do I need to know? scrip
  72. SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8E3 A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.
  73. Section 4: Business in Georgia What people do I need to know? Alonzo Herndon Asa Candler Morris Rich
  74. Business in Georgia 1895: Cotton States and International Exposition 800,000 visitors in three months designed to show economic recovery in the South encouraged investments in southern businesses
  75. Rich’s Famous Atlanta department store Started in 1867 by Morris Rich Known as a store “with heart” took farmers’ produce in payment took teachers’ scrip as money during the Great Depression Grew to be a regional shopping chain; eventually bought out by Macy’s
  76. Coca-Cola Invented in Atlanta in 1885 by John S. Pemberton as a patent medicine Business purchased and expanded by Asa Candler Sold company in 1919 for $25 million Robert Woodruff grew company to billions of dollars in sales each year Woodruff and Candler generous givers to worthy causes
  77. Prohibition gave Coca-cola a huge increase in business. Note the ingredients listed in this old advertisement. patent medicines
  78. Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company Alonzo Herndon started barber business 1905: Purchased small insurance company and managed it well Now one of the largest African American businesses in the US Worth over $200 million and operates in 17 states
  79. Section 5: World War I ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Georgians contribute to World War I?
  80. SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8E3 A nation's ideals influence social, political, and economic development.
  81. Section 5: World War I What words do I need to know? World War I neutral propaganda armistice
  82. Atlanta Fire May 21, 1917 Lasted 10-12 hours Seventy city blocks destroyed 6,000-10,000 people left homeless
  83. World War I1914-1918 President Woodrow Wilson declared that the US would be a neutral country.
  84. How to Start a World War in Seven Easy Steps Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in Sarajevo. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which was allied with Russia, so…. Russia declared war on Austria, which was Allied with Germany, so…. Germany declared war on Russia, which was allied with France, so… France declared war on Germany, which was allied with the Ottoman Empire, so… The Ottoman Empire declared war on France, which was allied with Great Britain, so... Great Britain Declared war on the Ottoman Empire. The United States entered the war In 1917 as a result of Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare.
  85. Eugene Jacques Bullard First African American combat pilot – from Columbus, GA Enlisted in French Foreign Legion: 1914 Flew combat missions against Germany US Army Air Force refused his services
  86. The United States Enters the War President Wilson worked to keep the US out of the war 1915: German submarine sank passenger ship Lusitania killing 128 Americans 1917: sub attacks resumed sinking American ships Zimmerman telegram: Germany tried to get Mexico to attack the US Because of unrestricted submarine warfare, Wilson finally joined the Allied powers US economy was its major contribution
  87. The Sinking of the Lusitania
  88. Georgia and World War I ±100,000 Georgians volunteered to join the US armed forces Training in Georgia at Camp Benning, Fort McPherson, and Camp Gordon helped Georgia economy Georgians contributed manufactured goods and farm produce 3,000 young Georgians killed in the war Ended November 11, 1918
  89. WWI Technology Thousands of men on both sides died charging machine gun emplacements. This German railroad gun required its own train and crew. It had a range of 29 miles.
  90. German Zeppelins were used to attack British cities in the early days of the war.
  91. Specialized aircraft were developed for dropping bombs. Fighters were also developed to defend against bombers and attack enemy fighters.
  92. British Sopwith Camel French Nieuport 17 German Fokker DVII Albatross German Fokker Triplane
  93. Baron Manfred Von Richtofen, the “Red Baron.”
  94. Death of the Red Baron
  95. Poison gas was perhaps the worst weapon used in WWI. Military use of gas was eventually banned by international agreement.