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WG-6 Laser-Plasma Acceleration of Ions. Leader: Sergei Tochitsky , UCLA Co-leader: Manuel Hegeleich , LANL. AAC-2012, Austin. Goals:. Ion Beam with a narrow energy spread. Energy Frontier ≥200 MeV protons ≥1 GeV MeV ions. High-Rate Reproducible Ion source.

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wg 6 laser plasma acceleration of ions

WG-6 Laser-Plasma Acceleration of Ions

Leader: Sergei Tochitsky, UCLA

Co-leader: Manuel Hegeleich, LANL

AAC-2012, Austin

goals
Goals:

Ion Beam with

a narrow energy spread

Energy Frontier

≥200 MeV protons

≥1 GeV MeV ions

High-Rate

Reproducible

Ion source

main laser plasma acceleration mechanisms
Main Laser Plasma Acceleration Mechanisms
  • RPA
  • (bulk/volume)
  • TNSA
  • (surface)
  • BOA
  • (bulk/volume)
  • SWA
  • (bulk/volume)

LASER

Shock reflected

Ions

e-

ions

Challenges

&

Boundary conditions

Results

Experimental & PIC

Ion beam

Characteristics

LA-UR-12-22090

slide4

Ion acceleration mechanisms in solid targets

Difficulty

Acceleration

mechanism

TNSA

(surface)

BOA

(bulk/volume)

RPA

(bulk/volume)

Requirements

IL>1018 W/cm2

IL>5x1019 W/cm

~100 nm

Ultra-high contrast (>108)

IL>1020-1022 W/cm2

1-50 nm

Ultra-high contrast (>108)

1D geometry

1-100 micron Targets

Ion beam

Characteristics

All species

Emax>100 MeV/amu,

CE ~ 10%

Typically exp. decaying

All species

Emax* >1 GeV/amu,

CE* 10%

Monoenergetic distribution*

*Prediction

Highest q/m (H+)

Emax~60 MeV

CE ~ 1-10%

Typically exp. decaying

LA-UR-12-22090

slide5

40 MeV proton generation by 7.5 J 200TWlaser pulse interaction with robust SUS 2 mm targetkTe confirms 2x1021 Wcm-2 laser intensity on target

60°

Strong charge separation regime

OAP

F=2.14

+5.2°

〜9.3 MeV

Laser pulse

8 J , 40fs,

contrast level 1x1010

Proton

Estimated Emax

=54MeV

30°

Electron spectrum

20°

FWHM~40fs

FWHM 4x3 mm2

1.6x1021 Wcm-2

+10.3°

kTe ~ 16MeV

+11.3°

+10.3°

37.2〜38.9 MeV

25.5〜27.5 MeV

38.9〜40.5 MeV

Ogura, Nishiuchi, Pirozhkov et al. 2012 Opt. Let.

slide6

From TNSA towardsthe RPA regime

  • JETI40 withplasmamirror:
  • 15 nmParylene (C8H6F2) revealsprotonpeaksbetween 1…2.1 MeV on top ofexponentialbackground
  • POLARIS laser:
  • TNSA study on target material andthickness
  • complexinterplaybetweentargetandlaserparametersturned out

Ta(Z=73)

Ag(Z=47)

Cu(Z=29)

Ti(Z=22)

Proton cutoff energy [MeV]

  • supportedbynumerical 2D PIC simulations

Al(Z=13)

Target thickness [µm]

6

simulations show a competition between two parameters
Simulations show a competition between two parameters.

M. Carrié et al. Phys. Of Plasma, 16, 053105 (2009).

Laser-plasma coupling: Absorption and electron-temperature.

Exα λd0/lss*(nhot*Thot)1/2

T. Grismayer et P. Mora. Phys. Plasmas 13, 032103 (2006).

Plasma gradient:

Increases with time because of target expansion.

2D simulations using the PIC code CALDER.

slide8

Efficient proton acceleration during intra-pulse phase

  • Proton beam deflection at oblique incidence
  • Most energetic protons are deflected in experiment
  • History of most energetic protons from 2D PIC simulation overlaid
    • Protons initially emitted under optimal angle
    • Injection into expanding sheath
  • Test experiment with tilted pulse front
  • Prominent non-target-normal proton beam emission
  • Spatiotemporal asymmetry restricted to coherent short pulse
  • Proton deflection as signature of the promptly accelerated electrons
  • Efficient proton acceleration during intra-pulse phase prior to the plasma expansion (pre-thermal)

Zeil et al. Nature Communications 6:874 (2012)

high energy high quality tnsa beams from microcones and limited mass targets
High Energy, High Quality TNSA Beams From Microcones and Limited Mass Targets

Trident 75 MeV from LMT

Preplasma from high contrast (>10-10 ASE) Trident

“main sequence” follows I1/2

Constant energy

Constant spot size

M. Schollmeier et al. in prep (2012)

67 MeV from Cones

t = -7ps

Laser contrast

Blue and green correspond to lineouts above

High Quality Beams

108

Cu Ka 2D transverse image

-5

K. A. Flippoet al. J. Phys.: Conf. Series244 022033 (2010)

S. Gaillard et al., Physics of Plasmas18, 056710 (2011)

slide10
24MeV Proton Bunches Using Microstructured Snow Targets Irradiated by 5TW LaserHebrew University/MBI/NRL
  • Microstructured Snow Targets are providing:

High laser-target coupling (95%); Easy to manufacture and control; Debris free ; Reduce demands on pre-pulse high contrast ratio; Geometrical features that enhance acceleration

  • 24 MeV protons were measured during the interaction of a 5TW laser with micro-structured snow target

CR-39

Stack

Laser

Thompson

Parabola

Protons

Snow Landscape

Snow target

front curvature heating mechanism
Front curvature - Heating Mechanism
  • Finite Spot effects strongly influence heating
  • Target deformation increases with decreasing target thickness

Electron Density

Electron

Density

Thin

Electron

Density

Thick

slide12

Stable RPA with two-component target a0~5

V. Hudik, UT

  • intensity dependant optimum
  • low divergence (140mrad)
  • containing ~6.5% of the laser energy (0.5% H+)
  • RT signatures appearing at highest intensity & thinnest target
  • l = 25 nm target
  • circular laser polarization
  • average of 4 consecutive shots
  • creation of a stable ion-ion interface at 2MeV/amu

Formvar(mass: C:H~ 5:1)

~25nm (35fs), ~13nm (70fs)

Target

Results I

Results II

slide13

Igor Pogorelsky, BNL

“Optical probing of laser hole-boring into overdense plasma”

ne

ncr

laser

Vsh

2Vsh

2V

V

0

  • 5% energy spread
  • 5x106 protons within 5-mrad
  • spectral brightness 7×1011 protons/MeV/sr

jet

foil

slide14

Exceeding 100MeV/amu with BOA with a 150 TW laser

  • >1GeV C6+ from Diamond target (measured on CR39 and Stack)
  • Increased carbon C6+ energies to over 1GeV
  • Increased maximum energy by a factor of 20 over previous results achieved with TNSA
  • >100MeV H+ from CH2 target (measured on IP and CR39-Stack)
  • Increased proton energies to over 100MeV
  • Increased maximum energy by a factor of 2 over previous results achieved with TNSA/BOA

CR39 Stack

LA-UR-12-22090

up to 8 gray in a single 1 ns proton bunch 1 3 m from target
Up to 8 Gray in a single 1 ns proton bunch, 1.3 m from target
  • Combination of all “cutting edge” methods for an application
  • PM + nm targets (high particle numbers, low secondary radiation)
  • Compact setup with PM-QPs (setup could be smaller than 50 cm)
  • low laser energy (400 mJ, in principle 10 Hz operatable)
  • truly ns-biology (single shot high dose)
  • E = 5.5 MeV, DE/E=6%

cells

1 cm

Courtesy of Dan Keifer

g turchetti et al university of bologna transport and post acceleration

G. Turchetti et al University of Bologna Transport and post acceleration

The LILIA experiment at LASERLAB Frascati (Rome) is devoted to prove

Injection at 30 MeV of a TNSA proton beam into a compact linac ACLIP

Phase 1: I=1020 a=8 diagnostics and targets tests (2012)

Phase 2: I=2 1021 a=30 injection and post acceleration

3D PIC simulations with PIC codes AlaDyn and Jasmine (GPU) with composite

targets (foil+foam layer) give more than 108 protons at E=30 MeV DE=0.5 MeV

Energy selection with solenoid and collimators allows to post-acc ~ 107 protons

First module

of ACLIP

shock wave acceleration in gas jet

UCLA

Shock Wave Acceleration in gas jet

10µm Laser – Gas Jet

Gas plume

Emax ~a03/2

F. Fiuza

SWA scaling

(submitted PRL)

Extended Plasma

hybrid

PIC

E TNSA ~ 1/L

slide18

100 μm

Strong shockwave generation

M. Helle, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich and A. Ting

Gas Flow

10 TW Laser

Shock Front

50 μm

Shockwave Laser

Gas Jet w/

Block

  • A block placed within the gas jet aids in coupling laser energy into shock.
  • A sharp gradients produced by this shock has been seen in experiments and simulations preformed using the hydrodynamics code SPARC.
  • Experiments show density gradients <50 um and peak density >1020 cm-3

*D. Kaganovich, M.H. Helle, D.F. Gordon, and A. Ting, Phys. Plasmas 18, 120701 (2011)

slide19
Laser ion acceleration with low density targetsE. d’Humières, S. Bochkarev and V.T. TikhonchukUniv. Bordeaux - Lebedev Institute (Russia)
  • Efficient underdense laser proton acceleration

is possible for various laser and target conditions. Depends strongly on the laser pulse shape. First experimental validation at LULI (few MeV protons with 500 nm exploded foils and few J of laser energy). First high laser energy experiments at Titan/LLNL this summer

  • The shock regime can be very efficient and offers an interesting alternative to overdense ion acceleration schemes. Modeled using 2D and 3D PIC simulations and a Boltzmann-Vlasov-Poisson Difficult to use gas jets with nowadays nozzle technology but exploded foils could help to highlight this mechanism experimentally.
  • Accelerated proton beam characteristics are similar to the ones obtained using solid targets. The ratio of maximum proton energy over laser energy is even higher for low density targets (when interaction is optimized in both cases). High laser energy and intensity allow to explore high density/thickness couples and lead to very energetic ions.
  • Requires high laser energies and long gradients to efficiently reflect ions with the targets available today.
laser plasma potential applications
Laser-Plasma Potential Applications
  • >50 MeV high-brightness injector for a large RF accelerator.
  • ~200 MeV/u Plasma accelerator for hadron therapy.
  • 5-10 MeV ion source at 1-10 Hz (for example for F18 Medical isotopes for PET).
  • Neutron source driven by LDIA, very short neutron pulses for material science.
  • Very high peak current ion beams for R & D. :WDM, Fast Ignition, etc.
pulsed neutron source
Pulsed Neutron Source

10 mm Cu with D20 ice coating

X-Ray & Neutron Generation

  • d

p

d

0224_2012_shot#4

A. Maksimchuk, UM

Experiment at Trident

20-40 MeV Deuterons

1010-1011 Neutrons/shot

M. Roth, DTU

status where we are in 2012
Status: Where we are in 2012

LANL

>100 MeV from a nanofoil,

LANL

UCLA,

Neptune Lab

JAEA

22 MeV protons with a narrow

Energy spread from H2 gas

jet plasma UCLA

40 MeV protons from a TNSA

Japan

-K. Zeil et. al., New J. Phys 12, 045015 (2010)

AAC-2012, Austin