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MANAGERIAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (1890 – 1930) ECONOMIC INCENTIVES HUMAN RELATIONS MANAGEMENT (1930 – 1965) SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (1965 +) MEANINGFUL WORK EXPERIENCES. PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION.

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managerial approaches to motivation
MANAGERIAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (1890 – 1930)

ECONOMIC INCENTIVES

HUMAN RELATIONS MANAGEMENT (1930 – 1965)

SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (1965 +)

MEANINGFUL WORK EXPERIENCES

psychological approaches to motivation
PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION

HEDONISM (pre 1890)

RATIONAL CHOICES

INSTINCT (UNCONSCIOUS) (1890 – 1920)

UNCONSCIOUS HEDONISM

DRIVE (REINFORCEMENT) (1920 +)

HEDONISM OF THE PAST

COGNITIVE (1940 +)

HEDONISM OF THE FUTURE

what is motivation hedonism
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?HEDONISM??

3 WAYS OF LOOKING AT MOTIVATION:

1. WHAT INITIATES OR ACTIVATES BEHAVIOR?

NEEDS

2. WHAT DIRECTS BEHAVIOR TOWARD A PARTICULAR GOAL?

RATIONAL PROCESSES

3. HOW IS GOOD BEHAVIOR SUSTAINED OVER TIME?

REINFORCEMENT

motivation theories
MOTIVATION THEORIES

CONTENT (NEED) THEORIES

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS (Maslow)

ERG THEORY (Alderfer)

MANIFEST NEEDS (Murray, McClelland)

TWO-FACTOR THEORY (Herzberg)

JOB DESIGN THEORY (Hackman)

PROCESS THEORIES

EQUITY THEORY (Adams)

EXPECTANCY THEORY (Vroom)

COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORY (Deci)

GOAL-SETTING THEORY (Locke)

REINFORCEMENT THEORIES

OPERANT CONDITIONING (Skinner)

BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION

content theories
CONTENT THEORIES

WHAT INITIATES OR ACTIVATES BEHAVIOR?

Models of motivation that try to answer the question…”What factors in the workplace motivate people?”

Focuses on needs and deficiencies of individuals.

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Source: Adopted from Abraham H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychology Review, 1943, Vol. 50, pp. 370-396.

hierarchy of needs maslow 43
HIERARCHY OF NEEDSMASLOW (43)

ASSUMPTIONS

A 5-LEVEL HIERARCHY OF NEEDS EXISTS UNIVERSALLY

ONLY UNSATISFIED NEEDS MOTIVATE US

AS LOWER-LEVEL NEEDS ARE SATISFIED, HIGHER-LEVEL NEEDS BECOME MORE IMPORTANT DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR

THE HIERARCHY

5. SELF-ACTUALIZATION

4. ESTEEM OR EGO NEEDS

3. BELONGINGNESS OR SOCIAL NEEDS

2. SECURITY OR SAFETY NEEDS

1. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

RESEARCH FINDINGS

NO DISTINCT PROGRESSION UP THROUGH THE 5 LEVELS

PEOPLE PURSUE SEVERAL NEEDS SIMULTANEOUSLY

PEOPLE CAN REGRESS (MOVE BACK DOWN) THE HIERARCHY

erg theory alderfer 69
ERG THEORYALDERFER (69)

ASSUMPTIONS

A THREE-LEVEL HIERARCHY

MORE THAN ONE NEED CAN BE SIMULTANEOUSLY PURSUED

PEOPLE CAN REGRESS (MOVE BACK DOWN) THE HIERARCHY

THE HIERARCHY

3. GROWTH NEEDS

2. RELATEDNESS NEEDS

1. EXISTENCE NEEDS

RESEARCH FINDINGS

FITS THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH BETTER THAN MASLOW

ALL OTHER ASPECTS OF THIS MODEL ARE ESSENTIALLY SIMILAR TO MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY

manifest needs murray 38 mcclelland 65
MANIFEST NEEDSMURRAY (38), McCLELLAND (65)

ASSUMPTIONS

THERE IS NO HIERARCHY AMONG THE NEEDS

NEEDS ARE LEARNED, NOT INSTINCTIVE

NEEDS ARE NEVER COMPLETELY SATISFIED

(N ACH) ACHIEVEMENT

ASSUMES PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

SETS MODERATELY DIFFICULT GOALS, TAKES RISKS

DESIRES IMMEDIATE, CONCRETE FEEDBACK

PREOCCUPIED WITH TASKS & ACCOMPLISHMENTS

(N AFF) AFFILIATION

DESIRES APPROVAL AND REASSURANCE FROM OTHERS

WANTS TO HAVE CONTACTS WITH OTHERS

CONFORMS TO WISHES AND NORMS OF OTHERS

CONCERNED WITH FEELINGS AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS

(N POW) POWER (DOMINANCE)

DESIRES INFLUENCE & ADVISE OTHERS AROUND THEM

DESIRES TO CONTROL ONE’S OWN ENVIRONMENT

HAS A STRONG SENSE OF ORDER

two factor theory herzberg 59
TWO-FACTOR THEORYHERZBERG (59)

ASSUMPTIONS

TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF FACTORS INFLUENCE US…HYGIENES & MOTIVATORS

THE OPPOSITE OF SATISFACTION IS “NO SATISFACTION”

THE OPPOSITE OF DISSATISFACTION IS “NO DISSATISFACTION”

ONLY MOTIVATING FACTORS LEAD TO SATISFACTION

HYGIENES AT BEST LEAD TO NO DISSATISFACTION

HYGIENES (EXTRINSIC)MOTIVATORS (INTRINSIC)

WORKING CONDITIONS RESPONSIBILITY

COMPANY POLICIES CHALLENGE OF WORK

SUPERVISIOR MEANINGFUL WORK

COWORKERS ACHIEVEMENT

SALARY & BENEFITS ACCOMPLISHMENT

STATUS SYMBOLS GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES

IMPLICATIONS

ABUNDANT HYGIENES DO NOT MOTIVATE WORKERS, THEY ONLY PREVENT DISSATISFACTION

ENRICH JOBS TO PROVIDE MOTIVATING, CHALLENGING WORK AND HIGH SATISFACTION

WEAKNESSES

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IS FLAWED

DOESN’T RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUAL NEED DIFFERENCES…NOT EVERYONE WANTS ENRICHED JOBS

OVEREMPHASIZES JOB SATISFACTION

job design theory hackman oldham 76
JOB DESIGN THEORYHACKMAN & OLDHAM (76)

JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL

FIVE JOB DIMENSIONSPSYCHOLOGICAL STATES

SKILL VARIETY

TASK IDENTITY  MEANINGFULNESS

TASK SIGNIFICANCE (Leads to high internal work motivation)

AUTONOMY  PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

(Leads to high quality work & satisfaction)

FEEDBACK  KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS

(Leads to high satisfaction & low turnover)

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EFFECTIVENESS IS MODERATED BY EMPLOYEE GROWTH-NEED STRENGTH

CALCULATE THE MOTIVATING POTENTIAL SCORE TO DETERMINE IF THE JOB NEEDS TO BE REDESIGNED

ARE YOUR WORKERS MOTIVATED BY INTRINSIC WORK FACTORS AND A STRONG NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (AN ENRICHED JOB)?

process theories
PROCESS THEORIES

WHAT DIRECTS BEHAVIOR TOWARD A PARTICULAR GOAL?

What is the rational thinking process that we go through to decide whether to do something or not?

Focuses on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals.

equity theory adams 65
EQUITY THEORY(ADAMS 65)
  • I compare my work outcomes (Om) with my perception of what others’ outcomes are (Oo). I also compare my work inputs (Im) with what I think others are contributing to their jobs (Io).
  • If the relative ratio of my outcomes/inputs (Om/Im) is similar to the perceived outcomes/inputs (Oo/Io) of others at work, EQUITY exists and the organization is perceived to be “fair.”

(Om/Im) = (Oo/Io) I feel fairly treated (content)

positive negative inequity
POSITIVE & NEGATIVE INEQUITY
  • If I believe my outcomes/inputs ratio is more generous than the outcome/input ratio of others, I feel guilty and over-rewarded. This is POSITIVE INEQUITY, and this perception may or may not motivate one to action.

(Om/Im) > (Oo/Io) I feel over-rewarded (guilty)

  • If I think my outcomes/inputs ratio is less than the outcome/input ratio of others, I feel frustrated and under-rewarded. This is NEGATIVE INEQUITY, and this perception usually motivates one to act to resolve this “unfair” situation.

(Om/Im) < (Oo/Io) I feel under-rewarded (frustrated)

likely responses when inequity is perceived
LIKELY RESPONSES WHEN INEQUITY IS PERCEIVED
  • CHANGE MY OUTCOMES
  • CHANGE MY INPUTS
  • RECONSIDER (OR DISTORT) THE PERCEIVED RATIOS
  • CHANGE “OTHER’S” INPUTS OR OUTCOMES
  • CHANGE COMPARISON “OTHER”
  • LEAVE THE ORGANIZATION OR WITHDRAW
expectancy valence theory three perceptions
EXPECTANCY-VALENCE THEORYTHREE PERCEPTIONS

EXPECTANCY (E P)

If I put forth effort (E), what’s the probability that I can achieve the performance objective (P)?

INSTRUMENTALITY (P  O)

If I achieve the performance objective (P), what’s the probability that a specific outcome (O) or reward will be given to me?

VALENCE (V)

How much value (positive or negative) do I attach to receiving this outcome?

MOTIVATION (EFFORT) = (E  P) x sum of [(P  O)i(V)i]

cognitive evaluation theory deci 95
COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORYDECI (95)

(The “Deci Argument” or the “Insufficient Justification” Thesis)

MORE REWARDS ARE NOT NECESSARILY BETTER FOR MOTIVATION: THE EFFECTS OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC REWARDS IS NOT ADDITIVE.

WHEN MONEY IS STRESSED AS A WORK REWARD, PEOPLE LOSE SIGHT OF THE INTRINSIC REWARDS THAT ARE INHERENT IN THE WORK ITSELF.

THIS IS PARTICULARLY PRONOUNCED WHEN YOU TANGIBLY REWARD “VOLUNTEERS” OR PAY MUCH MORE FOR WORK THAN WAS EXPECTED.

MAYBE WE SHOULDN’T LINK PAY OR REWARDS TO WORK PERFORMANCE…SO THE INTRINSIC REWARDS OF THE JOB WILL CONTINUE TO BE PERCEIVED

WEAKNESSES

ORIGINAL STUDIES DONE MOSTLY WITH STUDENTS

HIGH LEVELS ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION ARE NOT DIMINISHED BY EXTRINSIC REWARDS

MOST WORKERS IN THE “REAL WORLD” EXPECT TO BE PAID FOR THEIR EFFORTS

SENSITIZATION SEEMS TO MAINTAIN AWARENESS OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATORS

goalsetting theory locke 68
GOALSETTING THEORYLOCKE (68)

ASSUMPTIONS

  • WORKERS WANT CLEAR CRITERIA FOR WORK EVALUATION
  • SPECIFIC GOALS INCREASE PERFORMANCE

* DIFFICULT GOALS (WHEN ACCEPTED) RESULT IN MORE PERFORMANCE THAN EASY GOALS

  • FEEDBACK LEADS TO HIGHER PERFORMANCE THAN DOES NONFEEDBACK

FINDINGS

  • PARTICIPATION INCREASES ACCEPTANCE OF CHALLENGING GOALS
  • PEOPLE WILL WORK TOWARD MEETING GOALS IF THEY FEEL THEY HAVE CONTROL OVER GOAL ACCOMPLISHMENT
  • SELF-GENERATED (as opposed to externally-provided) FEEDBACK LEADS TO THE HIGHEST GOAL ACHIEVEMENT
  • NOT ALL CULTURES RESPOND WELL TO GOALSETTING (where worker independence and the expectation of individual evaluation is assumed)
  • QUANTITATIVE, SHORT-TERM GOALS MAY NOT APPROPRIATELY CAPTURE THE ESSENTIAL QUALITIES WHICH SHOULD BE ACHIEVED IN A GIVEN JOB
using goalsetting
USING GOALSETTING

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO)

FOUR ELEMENTS

GOAL SPECIFICITY

PARTICIPATIVE DECISION-MAKING

EXPLICIT TIME PERIOD

FEEDBACK

Are the objectives reasonable? …are they accepted?

More difficult goals can be accomplished if participatively set

Are significant rewards given for accomplished objectives?

Are significant portions of the job ignored because objectives cannot be set and measured?

Does the culture accept the idea of individual evaluation and reward?

reinforcement theories
REINFORCEMENT THEORIES

HOW IS GOOD BEHAVIOR SUSTAINED OVER TIME?

The role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time.

Assumes that:

  • Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated.
learning
LEARNING

LEARNING – A RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR OR POTENTIAL

BEHAVIOR THAT RESULTS FROM DIRECT OR INDIRECT EXPERIENCE.

KEY POINTS

CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR

LONG-LASTING EFFECTS

AFFECTS POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL BEHAVIOR

CAUSED BY DIRECT OR INDIRECT EXPERIENCE (Vicarious Learning)

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (Reflexive Behavior)

PAVLOV’S DOG – INVOLUNTARY RESPONSE (No Choice)

OPERANT CONDITIONING (Reinforcement)

DRAWS ON EXPERIENCES OF THE PAST

PEOPLE CAN MAKE CHOICES ABOUT THEIR BEHAVIOR

RECOGNIZES THAT CHOICES HAVE CONSEQUENCES

CONSEQUENCES EXPERIENCED WILL AFFECT FUTURE CHOICES

reinforcement theory skinner 72
REINFORCEMENT THEORY(SKINNER 72)

ASSUMPTIONS:

The consequences of past actions will influence our future actions

We repeat behaviors which lead to rewards that are satisfying

We reduce behaviors which go unrewarded or lead to punishment

Thus, tie valued rewards to desired behaviors in the workplace

It is better to positively reinforce behavior than to use punishment

TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT

POSITIVE

AVOIDANCE (NEGATIVE)

EXTINCTION

PUNISHMENT

schedules of reinforcement
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT

CONTINUOUS (every time)

New behaviors are quickly learned, but also stop quickly when unrewarded

INTERMITTENT (not every time)

Fixed-Ratio

Fixed-Interval

Variable-Ratio

Variable-Interval

Takes longer to learn new behaviors, but behavior is sustained over a longer period of time

5 most effective reinforcers warren
5 MOST EFFECTIVE REINFORCERSWARREN
  • MONEY (Tangible Compensation)
  • RECOGNITION (Publicity, Praise)
  • FREEDOM (Autonomy, Discretion)
  • OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE (Grow, Develop, Train)
  • INFLUENCE & POWER (Promotion)

CONCERNS WITH REINFORCERS

ARE REWARDS PERCEIVED AS IMPORTANT AND DESIRABLE?

CAN REWARDS BE GIVEN INCREMENTALLY AND FLEXIBLY?

CAN REWARDS BE GIVEN FREQUENTLY, OR DO THEY “WEAR OUT?”

ARE WORKERS LIKELY TO FEEL MANIPULATED?

WILL GIVING EXTRINSIC REWARDS ERODE INTRINSIC VALUES?

how to encourage excellence
HOW TO ENCOURAGE EXCELLENCE?

ARE WE TAKING FULL ADVANTAGE OF THE REWARDS WE CONTROL?

HAVE WE THOUGHT THROUGH THE FULL IMPACT THAT OUR REWARD SYSTEM HAS ON THE ORGANIZATION?

DO EMPLOYEES HIGHLY VALUE THE REWARDS WE MAKE AVAILABLE TO THEM?

DO EMPLOYEES KNOW WHAT THEY MUST DO TO OBTAIN THESE REWARDS?

IN SHORT, DO WE REWARD EXCELLENCE OR MEDOCRITY?

what are you rewarding with your pay system
WHAT ARE YOU REWARDING WITH YOUR “PAY” SYSTEM?
  • TIME SPENT ON-THE JOB
  • LONGEVITY (SENIORITY) WITH THE FIRM
  • DEMONSTRATED SKILLS & COMPETENCIES
  • PAST ACHIEVEMENTS & ACCOMPLISHMENTS
  • CURRENT PERFORMANCE & PRODUCTIVITY

REMEMBER, YOU GET WHAT YOU REWARD!!

HOW MUCH OF EACH COMPENSATION DOLLAR SHOULD BE PAID CONTINGENT ON PERFORMANCE?

5 % 10% 15% 25% 50% 100% ????

incentives and performance based rewards
INCENTIVES AND PERFORMANCE-BASED REWARDS

FOR INCENTIVES TO BE SUCCESSFUL

1. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MUST BE CLEARLY DEFINED

2. STANDARDS MUST BE CLEARLY COMMUNICATED TO WORKERS

3. WORKERS MUST BE ABLE TO INFLUENCE PERFORMANCE LEVELS

4. PERFORMANCE MUST BE ACCURATELY EVALUATED

5. REWARDS MUST BE BASED ON PERFORMANCE ACHIEVEMENT

6. REWARDS OFFERED MUST BE HIGHLY VALUED BY WORKERS

7. WORKERS AND MANAGEMENT MUST TRUST EACH OTHER

HOW TO ADMINISTER INCENTIVE PAY

A. ADD IT TO THE REGULAR PAYCHECK

ONCE ACQUIRED…FOREVER PAID…NEVER IS “EARNED” AGAIN

INCENTIVE PAY MIXED WITH BASE PAY…WORKERS LOSE MOTIVATION

B. PAY IT ALL OUT AS A LUMP-SUM AT ONE TIME

LARGE CASH OUTFLOWS ARE DIFFICULT FOR THE FIRM TO MANAGE

OPPOSED BY UNIONS BECAUSE ANNUAL WAGES DON’T GROW

incentive plans and performance based rewards 1
“INCENTIVE” PLANS AND PERFORMANCE-BASED REWARDS -- 1

1. SENIORITY & LONGEVITY SYSTEMS

  • Rewards loyalty to the firm…not productivity or performance
  • Workforce more likely to possess obsolete skills
  • Increments must be granted each year (no limit or “cap”)

2. ACQUIRED SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE INCENTIVES

  • The size of pay increments for each added skill
  • Labor costs go up…but does productivity improve?
  • Once all skills are mastered…what motivates the worker?
  • There really aren’t any rewards for work performance
incentive plans and performance based rewards 2
“INCENTIVE” PLANS AND PERFORMANCE-BASED REWARDS -- 2

3. PIECE RATES & COMMISSIONS

  • Setting “fair” standards
  • Changing standards and rates
  • Who controls work outcomes?
  • Are there rewards for all the essential duties of the job?

WHEN IS IT FEASIBLE TO USE PIECE RATES?

1. UNITS OF WORK ARE EASY TO DISTINGUISH AND MEASURE

2. QUALITY IS OF LESSER IMPORTANCE THAN QUANTITY

3. WORKER INVOLVEMENT IS A MAJOR DETERMINANT OF PRODUCTIVITY

4. THE WORKER CONTROLS WORK SPEED…NOT MACHINE-PACED

5. CLOSE SUPERVISION IS IMPRACTICAL

6. CHANGES IN WORK PROCESSES ARE INFREQUENT

7. YOU HAVE EXPERTS TO SET AND EVALUATE YOUR WORK STANDARDS

8. COMPETITION REQUIRES THAT UNIT LABOR COSTS BE PREDICTABLE

incentive plans and performance based rewards 3
“INCENTIVE” PLANS AND PERFORMANCE-BASED REWARDS -- 3
  • MERIT REVIEW PLANS

WHY DO MERIT PLANS FAIL? (HAMNER, 75)

  • Appraisal ratings seem invalid or biased
    • APPROPRIATE MEASURES?
    • OBJECTIVITY OR RATERS?
  • Pay adjustments not seen as being related to performance
  • Supervisors more concerned about satisfaction than performance
  • Incentives offered (type and size) aren’t motivating
    • ARE THESE REWARDS HIGHLY DESIRED?
    • SMALL INCREMENTS DO NOT MOTIVATE
  • Usually added to base pay as a percentage
    • EARNED ONCE…KEPT FOREVER
  • Trust and openness about pay and merit increases is very low
incentive plans and performance based rewards 4
“INCENTIVE” PLANS AND PERFORMANCE-BASED REWARDS -- 4

5. SUGGESTION SYSTEMS

  • Origin of the idea…who should get the credit?
  • Some workers can’t write their ideas down
  • Does management follow up on the ideas submitted?
  • Supervisors criticized…suggests they’re incompetent

6. COST-REDUCTION (GAINSHARING) PLANS

    • SCANLON, KAISER, RUCKER, IMPROSHARE
  • Sensitive cost data must be revealed to workers
  • Middle management is left out
  • Unions use the system to criticize management
  • Usually a complex formula for distributing rewards
  • Weakened link between rewards & individual performance
incentive plans and performance based rewards 5
“INCENTIVE” PLANS AND PERFORMANCE-BASED REWARDS -- 5

7. PROFIT-SHARING PLANS

  • Is there a real link to worker performance?
  • Impact of economic decline…what happens to motivation?
  • Determining the formula for distribution

8. STOCK OWNERSHIP PLANS

  • Dilution of control over the company
  • Impact of changes in the tax laws and economic cycles
  • Any real link to worker performance?
  • SPECIAL CONTESTS AND AWARDS

ABSENTEEISM, SALES PROMOTIONS, OUTSTANDING SERVICE AWARDS

  • Are the consequences of the spirit of competition anticipated?

JEALOUSY, UNCOOPERATIVENESS, COMPETITION WITHIN TEAMS AND GROUPS

  • Only the “Best” receives a reward…what about # 2?
  • Awards are often seen as “rights” (I earned it!), not as gifts
slide33
EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION PROGRAMS

“EMPLOYEE OF THE MONTH” AWARDS

VOTED BY PEERS / CUSTOMERS or PICKED BY THE SUPERVISOR?

INFORMALLY ACKNOWLEDGED or PUBLICLY CELEBRATED?

PRAISED or TANGIBLY REWARDED?

TYPES OF RECOGNITION

INSTANT, SPONTANEOUS VERBAL COMPLIMENT

PERSONALIZED WRITTEN NOTE / LETTER OF APPRECIATION

PLAQUE OR CERTIFICATE OF OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE

POST PICTURE OF WINNER / GET SPECIAL PARKING SPOT

ARTICLE IN COMPANY NEWSLETTER

CASH AWARD OR VALUABLE GIFT

CAUTIONS

WAS THIS RECOGNITION LEGITIMATELY EARNED, OR IS IT FAVORITISM?

IF COLLABORATION WAS INVOLVED, HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE GROUP (ALL THE OTHERS) WHO HELPED YOU?

IS THERE A RULE THAT PREVENTS YOU FROM EARNING IT AGAIN?

empowerment participation
EMPOWERMENT & PARTICIPATION

Empowerment

The process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of influence.

Participation

The process of giving employees a voice in making decisions about their work.

  • Areas of Participation for Employees
    • Making decisions about their jobs (what to do and when)
    • Making decisions about administrative matters.
    • Participating in decision making about broader issues of product quality.
slide35
EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PLANS

PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT

QUALITY CIRCLES

EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP

SUGGESTION PLANS*

ALL OF THESE APPROACHES TRY TO “EMPOWER” THE WORKER

THIS MAY NOT FIT WELL WITH THE CULTURE & WORKER EXPECTATIONS

WHILE WORKERS MAY DESIRE TO BE INVOLVED IN DECISION-MAKING, THEY MAY ALSO EXPECT THAT THEY SHOULD RECEIVE A REWARD FOR DOING THIS FOR THE COMPANY…MANY PLANS DO NOT PROVIDE TANGIBLE REWARDS FOR THESE SUGGESTIONS, ETC.

flexibility worker control
FLEXIBILITY & WORKER CONTROL

WORK SCHEDULE FLEXIBILITY

1.COMPRESSED WORK WEEK

WORKER FATIGUE

ISSUE OF OVERTIME

DIFFICULTIES IN WORK SCHEDULING

2. FLEXTIME

SUPERVISION & COORDINATION IS MORE DIFFICULT

ADEQUATE COVERATE OF WORK---HOW TO SCHEDULE?

JOBS THAT REQUIRE ALL TO BE PRESENT

3. JOB SHARING / PART-TIME WORK

COORDINATING WITH OTHER WORKERS

INCREASED COST OF BENEFITS

4. TELECOMMUTING

NO CONTACTS WITH OTHER WORKERS—NO COORDINATION

NO SUPERVISION—NOT EASY TO GET HELP WHEN NEEDED

HOW PRODUCTIVE ARE YOU WHEN WORKING AT HOME?

ISSUE OF LIABILITY WHEN WORK IS DONE AT HOME

flexible benefit plans cafeteria benefit plans
FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLANS(CAFETERIA BENEFIT PLANS)

TYPES OF FLEXIBLE PLANS

CORE

MODULAR ( BASE + PACKAGES)

FLEXIBLE SPENDING ACCOUNTS

HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS

ADVANTAGES

CAPS OR CONTAINS BENEFIT COSTS

RAISES CONSCIOUSNESS RE: BENEFIT COSTS

PROVIDES WORKERS ONLY THE BENEFITS THEY DESIRE

LIMITATIONS

COST OF BENEFITS FLUCTUATES (ADVERSE SELECTION)

PEOPLE MAKE IRRESPONSIBLE DECISIONS

IRS RULINGS & TAX LIABILITY ISSUES

BOOKKEEPING & ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES

implications of these applications of motivation theory
IMPLICATIONS OF THESE APPLICATIONS OF MOTIVATION THEORY

Recognize Individual Differences

EVERYONE ISN’T MOTIVATED BY THE SAME THING

Use Objectives and Feedback

HELP WORKERS TO KNOW WHAT TO DO & HOW THEY’RE DOING

Employee Participation in Decisions that Affect Them

GIVES THE WORKERS A VOICE…EMPOWER THEM

Link Rewards to Performance

YOU ONLY GET WHAT YOU REWARD, SO BE CAREFUL

Check the Systems for Equity and Fairness

ADMINISTER REWARDS ON A FAIR & CONSISTENT BASIS