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Application Design for Wearable Computing. Team members: Yih-Kuang Lu Hieu Nguyen. Wearable Computers – Where’s all started!. O utlines. Multimodal interaction, software/application, electronics, design methodology in user-centered design, and rapid prototyping – Wearable computers .

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application design for wearable computing

Application Design for Wearable Computing

Team members:

Yih-Kuang Lu

Hieu Nguyen

o utlines
  • Multimodal interaction, software/application, electronics, design methodology in user-centered design, and rapid prototyping – Wearable computers.
  • Designers should consider when designing wearable computing devices – Lesson learned & Useful guidelines.
  • Computer’s closeness to the body and its use while performing other tasks – UCAMP framework.
  • Areas of user interface, modalities of interaction, and wearable cognitive augmentation – Challenges and trends.
wearable computers
Wearable computers
  • Seek to merge the user’s information space with his or her workspace – make information available at any place, any time.
  • Application domains range:
    • Inspection procedures
    • Maintenance and manufacturing (vehicle & aircraft)
    • Navigation to on-the-move collaboration and position sensing
    • Real-time speech recognition and language translation
    • And more …
wearable computers cont
Wearable computers (cont.)
  • Advantages:
    • Body-worn computers that provide hands-free operation offering compelling advantages in many applications
    • Deal in information rather than programs
    • Tools in the user’s environment
    • Portable access to information
    • Eliminating cost of transferring information
    • Specialized and modular and easily be reconfigured to meet specific needs of applications
wearable computers cont1
Wearable computers (cont.)
  • Wearable system designers’ challenges:
    • Identifying effective interaction modalities
    • Accurately modeling user tasks
    • New paradigm in computing
    • No consensus on the mechanical/software HMI
    • Remodel the current computer interface – shift user’s focus to the environments instead of the computing devices
    • Handle real-world interactions distractions like walking, driving, etc…
wearable computers cont2
Wearable computers (cont.)
  • Every wearable computer system must be viewed from three different axes.
  • The Human – interaction between the human body and the wearable object
  • The Computer – size, power consumption, and UI software
  • The Application – design challenges and problem-solving capabilities
wearable computers cont3
Wearable computers (cont.)
  • Key research groups:
    • Carnegie Mellon, Columbia University, Georgia Tech, MIT, Bremen University, Darmstadt University, ETH Zurich, Lancaster University, University of South Australia, and NARA in Japan
  • WearIt@Work
    • Large wearable computing consortium of companies and universities in Europe (36 partners), focusing on four application areas: mobile maintenance, emergency rescue, health care, and production.
  • Commercial companies/products (with limited success)
    • Xybernaut, CDI, and VIA Inc.
    • Seiko’s Rupiter wristwatch computer
    • Panasonic’s wearable brick computer coupled with handheld or arm-worn touch screen
    • Sony and OQO wearable PCs
example vuman 3
  • Initiated by Carnegie Mellon University
  • Designed to streamlining Limited Technical Inspections (LTI) of amphibious tractors for the US Marines at Camp Pendleton, CA.
  • LTI – 600-item, 50 pages checklist, takes 4 to 6 hours to complete.

Very Rapid Prototyping of Wearable Computers: A Case Study of VuMan 3 Custom versus Off-the-Shelf Design Methodologies (1997) Journal on Design Automation for Embedded Systems.

lessons learned from usage
Lessons Learned From Usage
  • Maximum Size, weight, energy consumption before change user behavior
  • No fixed relationship between input/output/display
  • User less patient, expect instant response
  • Intuitive to use, no user’s manual
  • Information overload, user may focus on computer rather than physical world
  • Potential to lose initiative, user does exactly what the computer tells them to do
design guidelines for wearable computing
Design Guidelines for Wearable Computing
  • Three areas be considered:
    • Device  Keep user at the center of the design
    • Interface  Simple and clear interface for navigation
    • User environment  Readily viewable with limited shift of attention / Accommodate the cultural and esthetic standards
  • Questions designers should ask when beginning a project:
    • Does the mental model match the application physical workflow?
    • Are the user interactions with the application simple and intuitive?
    • Are the input and output devices and modalities appropriate for the set of projected applications?
    • Does the system have enough resources (processor, memory, network) to be responsive to the user’s interactions without excess?
    • Will the form and shape of the wearable computer be comfortable with the movement of the human body?
    • Where will the computer be placed on the body? What are the size, weight, and power consumption?
    • Is the device's thermal management and heat dissipation appropriate for the intended physical environment?
ucamp framework
UCAMP framework
  • User: The user is at the center of the wearable-computer design process.
  • Corporal: Wearables should be designed to interface physically with the user without discomfort or distraction.
  • Attention: Interfaces should be designed for the user’s divided attention between the physical and virtual worlds.
  • Manipulation: When mobile, users lose some of the dexterity assumed by desktop interfaces. Thus, controls should be quick to find and simple to manipulate.
  • Perception: A user’s ability to perceive displays, both visual and audio, is also reduced when using a mobile device. Displays should be simple, distinct, and quick to navigate.
  • User needs and interactions – mobile users are more impatient…Speed is the key!
  • Applied user-centered design via User-Centered Interdisciplinary Concurrent System Design Methodology (UICSM)
  • Use of the human body as a support environment
  • User’s physical context may be constantly changing and not fixed between user and device
  • Symbol Technologies – barcode technology.
    • Design for wearability considers the physical shape of objects and their active relationship with the human forms
    • Testing help resolved other needs and minimized health risk concern.
  • Wearability Design Criteria
  • The challenge for human–computer interaction design is to use advances in technology to preserve human attention and to avoid information saturation
    • Humans have a finite capacity that limits the number of concurrent activities they can perform
    • Human effectiveness is reduced as a person tries to multiplex more activities
    • After each refocus of attention, a period of time is required to reestablish the context before the interruption
    • Human short-term memory can hold seven plus or minus two chunks of information
attention cont
Attention (cont.)
  • Mobile context – user’s attention is divided between computing task and activities in the physical environments.
  • Resource Competition Framework, based on the multiple resource theory of attention to relate mobile task demands to the user’s cognitive resources
  • “Task Guidance and Procedure Context: Aiding Workers in Appropriate Procedure Following” warns that mobile interfaces may hinder the user’s primary task if they are not properly designed
  • The Attention Matrix
    • Categorizes activities (information, communication, and creation) by the amount of attention they require
  • Wearable-computer design offers simple manipulation within a complex set of information
  • A number of other manipulation devices have been developed and tested for wearable computing
    • Wheel-pointer
    • Small keypad or keyboard
    • Speech Interfaces
    • Speech Translation
    • Dual-Purpose Speech
  • When a user is on the go, the user’s ability to perceive a wearable computer’s interface is lessened
    • The vibration and visual interference from a moving background interferes with visual tasks
    • Background noise and the noise from the body itself affect hearing
  • How to design interfaces to least interfere with the user’s primary tasks while providing the most value in terms of augmentation
    • A Proactive Assistant (context-aware computing)
research directions
Research Directions
  • Three basic functions related to ease of use: Input, Output, and Information representation.

Figure: User interface performance thresholds

research directions cont
Research Directions (cont.)

Figure: Kiviat graphs for wearable computer use modalities

research directions cont1
Research Directions (cont.)
  • Wearable Cognitive Augmentation
    • Knowing the user’s cognitive state would enable development of proactive cognitive assistants that anticipate user needs much like a human assistant does.
    • What makes this attempt possible is an unprecedented advance in measuring and understanding brain activity during complex tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Figure: fMRI experiment configuration

research directions cont2
Research Directions (cont.)


Figure: Activation volume in dual task compared to single task


conclusions and future challenges
Conclusions and Future Challenges
  • User interface models: What is the appropriate set of metaphors for providing mobile access to information
  • Input/output modalities
  • Quick interface evaluation methodology: These evaluation techniques should especially focus on decreasing human errors and frustration
  • Matched capability with applications: the most effective means for information access and resist the temptation to provide extra capabilities
  • Context-aware applications
  • Proactive assistant
  • Application Design for Wearable Computing
    • Dan Siewiorek, AsimSmailagic, and Thad Starner2008