Development needs of master s programs in global health nursing and midwifery in japan
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The 1 st International Nursing Research Conference of WANS Sept. 20, 2009. Development Needs of Master’s Programs in Global Health Nursing and Midwifery in Japan.

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Development needs of master s programs in global health nursing and midwifery in japan

The 1st International Nursing Research Conference of WANS

Sept. 20, 2009

Development Needs of Master’s Programs in Global Health Nursing and Midwifery in Japan

Junko Tashiro, RN, PhD; Shigeko, Horiuchi, RN, SMW, DNSc;

Yasuko, Nagamatsu, RN MS; Michiko, Oguro, SMW, DNSc;

Yukiko, Manabe, RN, MS; Yuko, Hirano, RN, PhD

St. Luke’s College of Nursing,

WHO Collaborating Center for Nursing in PHC

Background global trend policy on strengthening nursing and midwifery
Background (Global Trend)WHO Policy on Strengthening Nursing and Midwifery

  • 1989:WHA42.27 Resolution: Strengthening nursing/ midwifery in support of the Strategy for Health for All

  • WHA45.5,49.1, 47.9, 48.8, 49.1, 54.12, 57.19, 59.23/27

  • 2000 United Nations: The Millennium Development Goals were accepted

  • 2007 March: Islamabad Declaration

  • 2008 Feb: Chang Mai Declaration

  • 2008 March:WHO Scale-up of Nurses and Midwives for

    Contribution to MDGs

Background japan
Background (Japan)

  • Strengthening Nursing & Midwifery is essential to obtain Goals of Global Health.

  • Japanese nurses and midwives have been working to improve Global Health.

  • Higher educational institutions in Nursing have prepared International Nursing or Global Health Nursing programs.

  • 40% (67/168) of the BSN programs offered International nursing related subjects.

  • 15% (16/104) of the Master programs offered International or Global Health Nursing courses.


  • To describe developmental needs of current master’s programs of International or Global Health Nursing in order to further develop and increase numbers of master’s prepared Japanese nurses contributing to global health.

    -To examine current curriculum, teaching methods and materials.

    -To form a consortium of faculties teaching international nursing and determine the core curriculum standard.

Method 1 organization of c onsortium of international nursing midwifery


Global Health

Midwifery Group

Global Health

Nursing Group

Method 1: Organization ofConsortium of International Nursing & Midwifery

Method 2
Method 2

  • First Phase:Investigate using Web-site search for “higher educational institutions informing their “International or Global Health Nursing or Midwifery”

  • Second Phase: Invite members to International Nursing & Midwifery Consortium

  • Third Phase: The first Consortium Meeting on current curriculum of each master’s program was held, and information was collected

Ethical considerations
Ethical Considerations

  • An invitation letter to faculty members teaching International Nursing or Midwifery informed and invited them to sign-up for this project.

  • Participants agreed to present their educational programs.

  • The IRB of our Institution (No. 08-054 ) approved this study.

Result participants of the consortium of international nursing midwifery in japan
Result 1:Participants of the Consortium of International Nursing & Midwifery in Japan

  • Nov, 2008:

    Agreeing to become members were Faculties from:

    - 3 Midwifery programs: (A, B. L)

    - 7 Master’s course: (A,B,C,E,H,L,K)

Result midwifery programs
Result 2: Midwifery Programs

  • 3 Master’s programs of Midwifery

  • Names of Sub-course in Midwifery

    - 「International Midwifery」 (A),

    - 「International Health Midwifery」 (B),

    - 「International Collaboration」 (L),

Result midwifery educational goals methods and contents
Result 3: Midwifery-Educational Goals, Methods, and Contents

Result challenges
Result 4: Challenges

  • Curriculum is overcrowded because of midwifery licensure requirements

  • Curriculum does not included “local anesthesia, episiotomy, suture, laboratory testing, and medications” due to limitations of responsibility of Japanese midwives compared to master’s programs in other countries

Result 5 international nursing course title teaching methods and credit hours
Result 5:International Nursing:Course Title, Teaching Methods and Credit Hours

  • International Nursing: A, B, C, E,

    A: Special lectures(including visiting professor’s) 4cr, Seminar 4cr, Research 8cr, total 16 credits

    B: Lecture・Seminar・Practicum Total 16cr

    C: Special Lecture, Seminar, Research 14cr

  • International Community Nursing:J 32 cr and above,

  • International Nursing Administration: K 4cr

  • International Health Nursing: K NA

Result 1 international nursing educational goals
Result 6-1:International Nursing: Educational Goals

・To gain fundamental as well as professional competence working with collaborative projects in Nursing/Midwifery in developing countries (A)

・To educate nurses to be collaborative partners in host countries in developing countries (B)

・To educate nursing practitioners enabling technical cooperation for developing countries(C)

・To educate nursing researchers contributing to international or global health (E)

・To gain higher competence as global community health nurse based on PHC (J)

・To gain knowledge and skills of nursing administration in international or global health cooperation for enabling nurse management (K)

Result 6 2 international nursing teaching contents
Result 6-2:International Nursing: Teaching Contents

  • A: Identifying global health issues, strategies and research: Assessment of

    health issues of a focused country; identify strategies to improve health

    status of the focused population based on literature review; conduct field

    survey or work and develop recommendation;

  • B: Study on ICN position statement, MDGs, Human Development Index,

    Social epidemiology, Disaster nursing, Disaster cycle and nursing,

    Mental Health Care, EmergencyTraining Simulation;

  • C: International nursing co-operation process and evaluation in developing

    countries; Cross cultural nursing for foreigners staying in Japan;

  • J: International health; Social anthropology (electives)、Community health

    activity; Nursing ethics; Nursing and health policy; Nursing education;

    Nursing administration; Nursing consultation; Introduction of international

    community nursing/ practice/ seminar: Community development;

  • H: International emergency relief; Nursing research methodology in

    International nursing

Result international nursing challenges
Result 7:International Nursing- Challenges

  • Shortage of faculty members teaching International or Global Health Nursing

  • Limited number of students majoring in International Nursing and enrollment is unpredictable.

  • Faculty members must also teach community nursing, nursing education, nursing administration, and disaster nursing

Result teaching materials
Result 8:Teaching Materials

  • Information from Web of International organizations such as:

    ・WHO (F)

    ・UNICEF (F)

  • Existing English and Japanese reference, DVDs such as:

    ・Merson, Black, & Mill. (2000). International Public Health.An Aspen Publication (A)

    ・Werner, D. (1993). Where there is no doctor. Macmillan Education LTD(A)

  • Visual materials

    DVD: Case of International Cooperation (K)

    VTR of Midwifery practicum, Simulations(L)


  • International Nursing or Midwifery is a new specialty based on global health needs, and developed from Community Health Nursing, Nursing Education, and Administration

  • Educational goals and competencies of International nurses and midwives are in common.

  • Major specialty issues are: faculty, curriculum, teaching contents and methods.

  • Further refinement of competencies in international collaboration, and development of core curriculum, is needed.

For further development
For further development

  • In order to further develop International Nursing & Midwifery:

    - Strengthen the consortium to increase sharing information about human resources, educational events, and develop new systems for effective education.

  • Develop a network among higher educational institutions or faculty members of Global Health Nursing and Midwifery in other countries in order to strengthen multinational collaboration for Health Equity