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MUSTANG-2 follow-up of eROSITA -selected clusters . Tony Mroczkowski 1 , Jon Sievers 2 , Nick Battaglia 3 , Brian Mason 4 , Charles Romero 4 , Mark Devlin 5 , Alex Young 5 , Simon Dicker 5 , Erik Reese 5 , Justus Brevik 6 , Sherry Cho 6 , Kent Irwin 6 , Jeff McMahon 7

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mustang 2 follow up of erosita selected clusters

MUSTANG-2 follow-up of eROSITA-selected clusters

Tony Mroczkowski1, Jon Sievers2, Nick Battaglia3,

Brian Mason4, Charles Romero4,

Mark Devlin5, Alex Young5, Simon Dicker5, Erik Reese5,

Justus Brevik6, Sherry Cho6, Kent Irwin6,

Jeff McMahon7

1 - NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow, Caltech/JPL,

2 - Princeton University,

3 - Carnegie Mellon University,

4 - NRAO, University of Virginia,

5 - University of Pennsylvania,

6 -NIST,

7 - University of Michigan

some benefits of sze follow up
Some benefits of SZE follow-up
  • Independent confirmation is intrinsically valuable (e.g. for testing the purity of the EASS sample).
  • The thermal SZE is highly complementary to X-ray observations.
  • The integrated SZE signal Ysz provides a valuable mass scaling relation.
  • Ysz falls off as 1/dA2, meaning it is only diminished to half its z=0.5 value when scaled to the turnaround in angular diameter distance.
  • By this point in the session, probably all this has been well-covered in the preceding talks. The important point for MUSTANG-2 is that its strength will be in targeted follow-up.
  • MUSTANG-2’s 9” measurements of the SZE will be particularly useful for confirming and probing the astrophysics of high-z cluster candidates, where eROSITA’sresolution (28” average) will make separation of AGN from ICM X-ray emission difficult.
  • Ground-based follow-up at radio wavelengths is a relatively inexpensive way to confirm the same gas seen in X-rays.
the 100 m green bank telescope
The 100-m Green Bank Telescope
  • 9” resolution at 90-GHz.
  • largest steerable structure on the ground; stands 148m tall.
  • collecting area is comparable to the full ALMA+ACA, and nearly an order of magnitude more than CARMA-23.

Green Bank, WV offers ~60 nights per year with conditions suitable for 90-GHz observations.

mustang 1 5
  • Horn-coupled, to improve signal per detector over the current (bare) MUSTANG-1 array (M-1).
  • Wider bandwidth than M-1 will further increase signal per detector.
  • Upgrades will use a scaled version of the transition edge sensors (TES) in ACTpol and SPTpol, which have a demonstrated lower intrinsic noise than the M-1 detectors.
  • Each detector is expected to be ~4-6 times more sensitive than the ~30 good detectors in a typical M-1 observation.
  • M-1.5 is now being built. M-1.5 will have at least 32 detectors and will be commissioned in Winter 2013/2014.
mustang 2 m 2
  • M-1.5’s readout will use a microwave-MUX technology, allowing hundreds of detectors to be read out in frequency space on a single readout line. This will enable M-2 upgrades – as a drop in replacement – using the same readout system and wiring as M-1.5.
  • M-2’s large 5.8’ instantaneous field of view will probe scales up to 10’ (vs. ~1’ with M-1). The 42” field of view of M-1 has been its primary limitation.
  • Full 367 dual-polarization M-2 could be ready by Spring 2015 (depending on funding). M-2 will offer mapping speeds several hundred times faster than M-1.
follow up strategies candidate confirmation or deep observations
Follow-up strategies: Candidate confirmation or Deep Observations?
  • Confirmation of a M500=1014 Mcluster at z=0.7 at 5-ssignificance is possible in 4 hours.
  • For an M500=3x1014M h-1cluster at z=0.7, this would take < 7 minutes.
  • Higher significance detections of the ~1000 most massive clusters at z≥0.8 could provide strong constraints on non-Gaussianity (Pillepich et al. 2012).
  • Deeper observations can probe beyond r500 of a M500≥2x1014Mcluster.
  • High-resolution, sub-arcminute SZE informs us of the dynamical state of the cluster.
radially averaged sze surface brightness profile from mock m 2 observations
Radially-averaged SZE surface brightness profile from mock M-2 observations
  • 4 hr observations of four z=0.7 clusters, from the simulations of Battaglia et al. 2010.
  • M500 = (1.6, 1.9, 3.4, 7.8) x 1014 M(from left to right).
  • Red line marks r500.
  • Radially-averaged SZE signal is non-zero beyond r500.
  • Uncertainty from the primary CMB is not shown.

4 hr observation of z=0.7, M500 = 7.8 x 1014 Mcluster (images smooth to 8.3”; contours are spaced by 2-s, starting at 2-s.)

example source subtraction from a mustang 1 observation
Example: Source-subtraction from a MUSTANG-1 observation
  • It has been claimed that radio source contamination cannot be removed from bolometric observations. This is no longer the case.
  • In Mroczkowski et al. 2012 (see, we removed an extended source from the MUSTANG-1 time-ordered data using an iterative procedure. This slightly changes the noise estimates, but does not alter the SZE features.
  • Other procedures exist and are maturing for bolometric data (e.g. CLEAN or model-fitting in time streams).
summary future work
Summary/Future Work
  • MUSTANG-1.5 will be commissioned in 1 year (Winter 2013/2014), and will offer 4-6x the sensitivity of MUSTANG-1 and probe scales up to 3’ (at the same 9” resolution).
  • MUSTANG-2 will be a straight-forward upgrade from M-1.5, and could be online by 2015, in time to confirm hundreds of massive, high-z clusters discovered in the EASS. It will probe scales up to 10’, and be 20-30x more sensitive than M-1.
  • Deep observations with M-2 could be used to study dynamics, pressure substructure, or (in conjunction with the X-ray data) derive the Hubble constant.