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Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen Updates. Frontline Clinical Health Workers Facilitator: . Current status in SA. SA has highest HIV burden 2011 ANC Sero prevalence showing women still highly affected High mortality due to HIV and AIDS

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Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen Updates


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    1. Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen Updates Frontline Clinical Health Workers Facilitator:

    2. Current status in SA • SA has highest HIV burden • 2011 ANC Sero prevalence showing women still highly affected • High mortality due to HIV and AIDS • Largest HIV and AIDS program, but morbidity and mortality still high • Huge political commitment to increase life expectancy of S Africans

    3. Rationale for revised Treatment Guidelines • South Africa is committed to improving the health status of the citizens- NSDA • Responded to the Global call to eliminate HIV and AIDS- May 2011 • SA to reduce morbidity & mortality due to HIV and AIDS • Call to move to more efficacious regimens-IAS 2012

    4. The Mandate • NSP 2012/2016 • NSDA –the four outcomes • Action Framework No Child Born with HIV by 2015 • Scale up coverage and improve quality of PMTCT to reduce MTCT to less than 5% • Millennium Development Goals 4,5 and 6 (4) Two thirds reduction in infant mortality (5) Three quarters reduction in maternal deaths (6) Combat HIV and AIDS

    5. Risks and Benefits of Earlier Initiation of ART Delayed ART Early ART • Drug toxicity • Preservation of limited Rx options • Risk of resistance (and transmission of resistant virus) • ↑ potency, durability, simplicity, safety of current regimens • ↓ emergence of resistance • ↓ toxicity with earlier therapy • Risk of uncontrolled viremia • Near normal survival if CD4+ count > 500 • ↓ transmission

    6. Important areas for the change • Drug regimens • FDC (fixed dose combination) • Laboratory tests • M & E • Integrated management (TB, Sexual Reproductive Health-Family Planning, Cervical screening, Nutrition)

    7. Key Updates • Timing of ART initiation in treatment-naive patients remains at cd4 <= 350 • Guidance on introduction of the fixed dose combination • Considerations for patients with co morbidity • Considerations for HIV-infected women of childbearing age • Timing of ART initiation in patients with TB • Guidance on management of patients requiring salvage therapy • Guidance on management of stable patients and on new guidelines to improve adherence to treatment

    8. Key changes in the 2013 treatment guidelines • Phasing out separate Pre ART literacy sessions for ART eligible patients and • Introduction of concurrent adherence literacy to strengthen adherence support • It is mandatory that patients are started on treatment within 14 days after being assessed as eligible for ART • Introduced management of patients with co morbidity • Early treatment offered to prevent transmission to uninfected patients

    9. Updates Revised PMTCT Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines 2013

    10. Encourage all women to book as early as possible in pregnancy, preferably before 14 weeks gestation • Do not turn women away when trying to book • All women coming to the clinic for first antenatal booking must be seen on the same day

    11. Baseline screening and ANC • Group HIV pre-test counselling • Opt-out approach • Booking bloods should include RPR, Rh, Hb check and HIV • For HIV: Individual testing with rapid test kit • Individual post-test counselling • Tetanus • Iron, folic acid, vit C, Calcium P15 on, PMTCT Guidelines

    12. HIV Negative Test • If negative, repeat 12 weeks after first test or at 32 weeks gestation or later • Counsel about condom use and partner testing • Consider re-testing at delivery, at 6/52 post natal EPI visit, 3 monthly while breastfeeding and then at least annually • 3 monthly testing whilst breastfeeding should be aligned with EPI visits where possible (10wk, 6m, 12m, 18m) p5 (2.2 Antenatal Care) & p46, PMTCT Guidelines

    13. HIV Positive Test • If positive and confirmed positive with 2nd rapid test kit • Post-test counselling • Baseline bloods (CD4, Creatinine) • Initiate ART with the FDC on the same day regardless of CD4 cell countor gestational age. Do not wait for blood results to initiate! • Bring client back within 7 days for CD4 and Creatinine results p8 Figure 2 PMTCT Algorithm 1, PMTCT Guidelines

    14. Also discuss: • On-going adherence to FDC • Partner testing/status/treatment • Consistent condom use • Infant feeding • Counsel about future contraception plan after delivery • Cervical screening 6/52 postpartum • May cover over numerous sessions – avoid information overload on 1st ANC visit.

    15. Screen for TB • Active TB disease is common in women living with HIV. • All pregnant women should be actively screened for TB symptoms. • If an HIV positive patient has symptoms suggestive of TB, a sputum specimen must be collected for GeneXpert testing, and the TB Xpert diagnostic algorithm followed. • Although it is important to investigate patients for TB before starting ART, in most pregnant patients, initiation of ART prophylaxis or lifelong treatment should not be delayed for TB investigations. • The healthcare provider should suspect TB in a woman living with HIV if any of the following 4 symptoms are present: • Current cough of any duration. • Fever • Night sweats • Weight loss or poor weight gain • Any woman living with HIV who has none of these symptoms can be considered for eligibility for isoniazid preventive therapy by performing a tuberculin skin test. p26, PMTCT Guideline

    16. Pregnant with Confirmed TB BEFORE ART(FDC) Initiation • TB = stage 3 condition = lifelong ART regardless of CD4 count • HIV positive, pregnant & diagnosed with active TB = initiate TB treatment AND AZT on the same day • +/- 2 weeks later, once stable on TB Rx, switch from AZT to FDC • Counsel & monitor patient for IRIS p28, PMTCT Guideline

    17. Isoniazid Prophylactic Therapy (IPT) • TB Screen for all women at EVERY ANC visit • TB screen negative – do TST • TST + = start IPT ‘once patient stable on ART’ • Lifelong ART (CD4<350) = IPT for 36 months • FDC Prophylaxis (CD4>350) = IPT for 12 months • No TST available, continue with current IPT guidelines = 6 months IPT if active TB excluded p29, PMTCT Guideline

    18. Screen for neuropsychiatric illness • Use of efavirenz may be contraindicated in individuals with active psychiatric illness. • In practice, any woman with an active psychiatric illness should not receive an efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimen without consultation. • i.e. these patients should be up-referred for a decision about which ARV regimen to initiate • Mild depression is not a contraindication to efavirenz. p9, Figure 3: PMTCT Algorithm 2 & pp26-27, PMTCT Guidelines

    19. Screen for renal disease • Use of tenofovir is contraindicated in individuals with renal disease. • Renal disease is uncommon in HIV-infected pregnant women. • At the first antenatal visit, women at increased risk of renal disease may be identified through a pre-pregnancy history of: • diabetes or hypertension, • a previous kidney condition requiring hospitalization, • ≥2+ proteinuria on urine dipstix. • A serum creatinine of >85 µmol/L is considered abnormal in pregnancy • (other methods of estimating renal function, including estimated glomelurlarfilatration rate from the Cockroft-Gault equation, are inaccurate in pregnancy). • If patient history suggests renal disease dispense AZT at 1st ANC visit and review with Creatinine result after 7 days. p10, Figure 4: PMTCT Algorithm 3, PMTCT Guidelines

    20. How to initiate ART • All pregnant women, regardless of CD4 cell count, will be initiated on a fixed-dose-combination of FTC+TDF+EFV (one tablet) on the same day that they are diagnosed HIV positive • Tablet to be taken once a day • In the evening • At the ‘same time’ • Routine antenatal booking bloods must be done (HB, RPR, Rh) at booking. • Creatinine and CD4 are done on that same day and the patient must return for the results within 7 days. ART is initiated on ALL HIV positive pregnant women immediately. There is no need to wait for the CD4 and Creatinine results before initiation.

    21. Counsel women on FDC use itself • Screen for contra-indications to FDC • Known renal disease • Previous or current history of psychiatric illness (psychosis) • very symptomatic for TB i.e. high index of suspicion • Explain what monitoring bloods will be required (see later slide) and when they will be done • Counsel that EFV is safe in pregnancy (many clients will read the package insert and panic) • Common side effects: most self limiting or develop tolerance • Somnolence/dizziness/strange dreams common, but usually improve • Shift workers need reassurance that symptoms of somnolence/dizziness usually improve • Client must be aware of potential renal toxicity but that this will be monitored • Explain that FDC unlikely to cause rash • Seek attention at clinic/hospital immediately if there is a problem, but emphasise importance to continue treatment regardless

    22. NB!!! • DO NOT WAIT FOR CD4 AND CREATININE RESULTS BEFORE STARTING THE PATIENT ON TREATMENT

    23. If CD4≤350 cells/mm³: lifelong ART • WHO III/IV: lifelong ART, regardless of CD4 • If CD4>350 cells/mm³: continue ART for duration of pregnancy and FOR ONE WEEK AFTER cessation of breastfeeding p8, Figure 2: PMTCT Algorithm 1, PMTCT Guideline

    24. Co-trimoxazole (CPT) for Pregnant Women • No change to existing practice • Women eligible if: • CD4 < 350 or • WHO II/III/IV • Recommend: • initiate FDC on day of 1st antenatal visit • add Bactrim at follow-up visit one week later • will help avoid overlapping side-effects e.g. rash Not explicitly stated in PMTCT guideline

    25. Already on ART and pregnant • Check when CD4, VL and monitoring bloods last done • Check if virally suppressed • Continue regimen if suppressed • Assess adherence if not suppressed • Consider second-line ART • If on EFV-containing regimen, NO need to switch • If on 3 individual drugs (3TC+TDF+EFV) prioritise to FDC p37, PMTCT guideline

    26. Already on AZT • Check CD4 cell count has been done. If no count in past 6 months re-do CD4 • Take blood for Creatinine • Change to FDC

    27. HIV Unknown Status in labour or last negative test <32 weeks or >3 months ago • Offer HIV counselling intrapartum for the benefit of mum and baby

    28. Diagnosed HIV positive intrapartum • Stat NVP and FTC + TDF and 3 hourly AZT • Start FDC as soon as possible if mom plans to breast feed • Give baby NVP for 6/52 • CD4 and Creatinine tests • TCB within 7 days for results at the clinic P11, PMTCT Algorithm 4, PMTCT Guideline

    29. Diagnosed HIV positive postpartum • If seroconverts and still breastfeeding: • Start FDC immediately • Take CD4 & creatinine & review with results in 7 days • Counsel about EXCLUSIVE breastfeeding • PCR test for babysame day (if < 18 months, do HIV rapid test if > 18 months – see infant testing algorithm in the guidelines) • Dispense NVP syrup for baby for 7 days • Review PCR in 1 week • PCR positive – discontinue NVP syrup & initiate HAART • PCR negative – continue NVP syrup for minimum 6 weeks p11, PMTCT Algorithm 4,PMTCT Guidelines

    30. Diagnosed HIV positive postpartum ..cont • If not breastfeeding: • Management will depend on when the breast feeding was stopped • Mom: • no need to start on ART. • Take CD4 and come back for results: if CD4<350 refer for lifelong ART • Baby • PCR same day (if baby present) • PCR positive – initiate ART • PCR negative – • If there is no exposure to BF for > 6 weeks then baby is PCR negative and managed accordingly, no need for NVP • if there has been exposure to BF within the last 6 weeks dispense NVP syrup for 6 weeks and repeat PCR at 6 weeks from breastfeeding cessation to confirm HIV diagnosis

    31. Infant Feeding • HIV infected mothers (with HIV-exposed infants or unknown HIV status) should exclusively breastfeed for first 6 months • Introducing appropriate complementary foods thereafter • Continue breastfeeding for first 12 months of life. • Breastfeeding should then only stop if a nutritionally adequate and safe diet without breast milk is possible • If baby seroconverts (PCR+) breastfeeding should continue for 24 months p41-42, PMTCT Guidelines

    32. Infant Feeding Mothers known to be HIV-infected should only give commercial infant formula milk as a replacement feed to their HIV uninfected infants or infants who are of unknown HIV status, when specific conditions are met: (referred to as AFASS - affordable, feasible, acceptable, sustainable and safe in the 2007 WHO recommendations on HIV and Infant Feeding) • safe water and sanitation are assured at the household level and in the community, and, • the mother, or other caregiver can reliably provide sufficient infant formula milk to support normal growth and development of the infant, and, • the mother or caregiver can prepare it cleanly and frequently enough so that it is safe and carries a low risk of diarrhoea and malnutrition, and • the mother or caregiver can, in the first six months, exclusively give infant formula milk, and, • the family is supportive of this practice, and, • the mother or caregiver can access health care that offers comprehensive child health services. p42-p43, PMTCT guidelines

    33. Infant Nevirapine • All HIV exposed infants would take Nevirapine syrup for only 6 weeks irrespective of feeding choice • Birth weight >2500g: 1,5ml daily at the same time everyday • Birth weight<2500g: 1ml daily at the same time everyday

    34. Which Infant get NVP for > 6 Weeks • If mother for any reason is on AZT monotherapy for PMTCT continue NVP until 1 week after cessation of breastfeeding. • If concerns about maternal adherence to FDC - may not be virally suppressed • If mother booked late & started FDC soon before or at delivery – may not be fully suppressed by 6 weeks post-delivery

    35. Infant Co-trimoxazole • Initiate co-trimoxazole in ALL HIV exposed infants at 6 week EPI visit • Co-trimoxazole discontinued only once PCR confirmed negative post breastfeeding cessation • Monitor babies for adverse reactions

    36. Infant Testing • 6 week PCR testing for all HIV exposed infants • If breastfed, repeat PCR 6 weeks after cessation of breastfeeding • 18 month ELISA in all HIV exposed infants • Except those already PCR+ & initiated on HAART • Test at any age if symptomatic • Please note: A negative PCR test anytime before 6 weeks of age needs to be repeated at 6 weeks

    37. Monitoring Bloods • Creatinine (lifelong & prophylaxis) • If on TDF • Baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months then annually • CD4 • Lifelong: Baseline and at 1 year • Prophylaxis: baseline and 6 months after FDC stopped • VL (only if on lifelong) • 6 months, 12 months and then annually

    38. Remind mom to take ART to the hospital / clinic when in labour • Remind mom to take ART at usual time during labour and delivery or caesarean section • Remind mom to have enough for the entire hospital stay • Never to run out of medication • Go to the clinic before the tablets run out, not after • Have enough until the follow up visit post delivery • Know where to follow up before discharge

    39. Discontinuing FDC in Those on Prophylaxis • If breastfeeding, continue until 1 week after cessation of breastfeeding • If woman chooses not to breastfeed • Assess status of mother, confirm CD4 count was >350 • Repeat clinical staging & TB screening • Send Hep B sAg & continue/discontinue as per results • Baby still gets 6/52 NVP syrup • Women should have Hepatitis B sAg BEFORE DISCONTINUING • If Hep B sAg positive DO NOT discontinue FDC – woman qualifies for LIFELONG ART (p31, PMTCT guideline)

    40. Key messages - 1 • All ANC clients (newly diagnosed as HIV positive and those pregnant but not yet on HAART) to start FDC (single pill)/ART on the same day as 1st visit • CD4 and creatinine test to be done and client asked to return within 7 days • Further management based on CD4 counts, creatinine levels – see algorithms in the PMTCT guidelines

    41. Key messages -2 • All ANC clients that test HIV negative during pregnancy to repeat test every 12 weeks/3 months after 1 test, and/or at 32 weeks of gestation or later, at labour, during the postnatal period throughout period of breastfeeding • Infant testing algorithm in the revised guidelines to be followed.

    42. Updates Revised PMTCT Indicators NIDS 2013

    43. Antenatal 1st visit before 20 weeks rate Numerator: Antenatal 1st visit before 20 weeks • Definition: A first visit by a pregnant woman to a health facility that occurs before 20 weeks after conception Denominator: Antenatal 1st visit total • Calc: Antenatal 1st visit 20 weeks or later PLUS Antenatal 1st visit before 20 weeks

    44. Antenatal 1st visit coverage (annualised) Numerator: Antenatal 1st visit total Denominator: (Female under 1 year + Male under 1 year) * 1.15 The census number of children under one year factorised by 1.15 is used as a proxy denominator - the extra 0.15 (15%) is a rough estimate to cater for late miscarriages (~10 to 26 w), still births (after 26 weeks gestation) and infant mortality. Pregnant women are regarded as potential antenatal clients from around 10 weeks gestation, i.e. spontaneous abortions before that as well as TOP cases are excluded

    45. Antenatal client HIV 1st test positive rate Numerator: Antenatal client HIV 1st test positive Denominator: Antenatal client HIV 1st test

    46. Antenatal client HIV re-test at 32 weeks or later rate Numerator • Antenatal client HIV re-test at 32 weeks or later Denominator • Antenatal client HIV 1st test negative • Calc Antenatal client HIV 1st test MINUS Antenatal client HIV 1st test positive

    47. Antenatal client HIV re-test positive at 32 weeks or later rate Numerator: Antenatal client HIV re-test positive at 32 weeks or later Denominator: Antenatal client HIV re-test at 32 weeks or later

    48. Antenatal client initiated on ART rate Numerator: Antenatal client initiated on ART Definition: HIV positive antenatal clients who were initiated on ART during their current pregnancy Note: Collect ONLY at facility where ART is initiated Denominator: Antenatal client eligible for ART Definition: Antenatal clients who tested HIV positive during or before the pregnancy and are not on ART at 1st visit Calculate Antenatal client known HIV positive but NOT on ART at 1st visit PLUS Antenatal client HIV 1st test positive PLUS Antenatal client HIV re-test positive at 32 weeks or later

    49. Infant given NVP within 72 hours after birth uptake rate Numerator: Infant given NVP within 72 hours after birth Denominator: Live birth to HIV positive woman • Definition: Live birth to a woman known to be HIV positive at delivery. • Includes babies born before arrival (BBA) at health facilities and babies born outside health facilities • Live births should only be counted when the foetus is of 26 or more weeks gestational age and/or weighs 500g or more. Live births of women with unknown HIV status at delivery and tested during or after delivery and found HIV positive should also be counted

    50. ART prophylaxis discontinued within 12 months after delivery rate Numerator: ART prophylaxis discontinued within 12 months after delivery • Definition: Postnatal clients who are on ART prophylaxis and discontinued treatment at any time within 12 months after delivery Denominator: Antenatal client initiated on ART • Definition: HIV positive antenatal clients who were initiated on ART during their current pregnancy