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Refresher on Nationalism

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  1. Refresher on Nationalism

  2. Congress of Vienna • In 1815, the Congress of Vienna restores the Old Order • Absolute monarchs back • Re-draws the map, different ethnicity groups are thrown together into one territory

  3. In France • Napoleon is Emperor until 1815 • Louis XVIII is King (monarchy restored) until 1824 (with the exception of Napoleon’s 100 Days) • Charles X rules 1825-1830 (younger brother of Louis XVIII) • His rule ends with the July Revolution

  4. July Revolution • The people overthrow King Charles X (disagree with his policies – he was ruling more like an absolute monarch) • The people elect Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans – this will be known as the July Monarchy • Louis-Philippe rules from 1830-1848

  5. Revolution of 1848 (in France) • People are unhappy, riots • In Feb. 1848 Louis-Philippe abdicated, fearful of the unrest • Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte elected President • He declared himself President for life and Emperor Napoleon III • First President of France, last monarch

  6. Revolutions of 1848 • Spread throughout Europe – France, Germany, Poland, Italy, etc. • Known in some countries as Spring of Nations • Comparisons being drawn to today’s Arab Spring • The demand: more participation and democracy • The end result: with a few small exceptions, the Revs of 1848 were unsuccessful • Reactionary forces won out

  7. Unification Movements • In Italy and Germany, revolutions of 1848 included unification movements • C.o.V. left Spain, Austria and France in charge of Italy • The German Confederation was dominated by Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia

  8. Italy – The Unification Players • Giuseppe “the soul” Mazzini • Started nationalist group Young Italy in 1832 • Camillo “the brain” di Cavour • Il Risorgimento • With France, declared war on Austria and won – kicked Austria (except Venetia) out of Italy • Giuseppe “the sword” Garibaldi • Joined Young Italy, exiled, came back to fight off Austria • Unites Southern Italy • First King of United Italy - Victor “the stash” Emmanuel II • Italy backed Prussia, against Austria (Austria loses) • War provides opportunity to kick French troops and Austrian troops out of Venice and Papl States

  9. Germany – The Unification players • Frederick Wilhelm IV – King of Prussia • Promises change, doesn’t do it • Bismarck = driving force of unification • He is not a liberal • He supports the King • Thinks it is the job of King & Prussia to unify Germany

  10. Germany: Bismarck and realpolitik • Bismarck’s philosophy of realpolitik will unify Germany • He practiced realpolitik or “politics of reality” • He was not an idealist • “The great problems of the day will be settled by…blood and iron”

  11. Wars = Unification • Austro-Prussian War: • Italy sides w/ Prussia, gives Venice to Italy, kicks Austria out of Germany • Northern Germany is unified • Franco-Prussian War: • The south joins the north to go to war against France and Napoleon III • Kick France out to unify Germany • Prussia wins • In 1871 peace treaty declares unified Germany