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Lecture #1. Office Management Tools Saima Gul. Computer Application. Education Banking System Aerospace Business & Marketing Government Entertainment. What is a Computer?. System Unit.

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lecture 1

Lecture #1

Office Management Tools

Saima Gul

computer application
Computer Application
  • Education
  • Banking System
  • Aerospace
  • Business & Marketing
  • Government
  • Entertainment

What is a Computer?

System Unit

A computer is an electronic machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), processit into useful information (output), and store it in a storage media for future use


History & Evolution


Mechanical Calculator

Difference Engine

Analytical Engine

1944 MARK I

Howard Aiken at

Harvard University

1951 - UNIVAC1

first commercial computer

1954 - Hewlett and Packard

Met and setup shop in

Garage at Silicon valley

Difference Engine

Analytical Engine


1969 – Internet was founded

1975 – Microsoft Founded

Bill Gates with Paul Allen


Apple I and Apple II

1981-IBM PC

PC was introduced.

1989 – WWW

Invented by

Tim Berners-Lee


1994 – Netscape

Founded by

Jim Clark and Marc Andreesen

Many more….





Question -

What is a Computer?

A computer is an electronic machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), processit into useful information (output), and store it in a storage device for future use


Computer Generation

  • 1stGeneration
  • 2nd Generation
  • 3rd Generation
  • 4th Generation
  • 5th Generation

1st Generation (1944 - 1958) : Vacuum Tubes

  • Memory was made up of hundreds of vacuum tubes or sometimes magnetic drum
  • Gave off so much heat that even if they were cooled by gigantic air conditioners.
  • Input and output media were punched cards and magnetic tapes

IBM Punched Card (input)

Magnetic Tapes (output)

Vacuum Tubes






2nd Generation (1959 - 1964) : Transistor

  • an electronic switch that alternately allow or disallow electronic signal to pass, replaces vacuum tubes
  • These transistors were made of solid material, some of which is silicon, therefore they were very cheap to produce
  • Much smaller than vacuum tubes, draw less power, and generate less heat, conduct electricity faster.

3rd Generation (1964 - 1970) : Integrated Circuit

  • An electronic circuit that packages transistors and other electronic components into one small silicon chip called semiconductor.
  • The number of transistors that is placed on a single chip has increased, shrinking both the size and cost of computers.
  • Keyboards and monitors were used.
  • Magnetic disks were used widely as secondary storage

4th Generation (1971-Present) : Microprocessor

  • A silicon chip on which transistors are integrated onto it.
  • Microprocessor can do all the processing of a full-scale computer – smaller in size , faster in speed.
  • These circuit integrations are known as Large-scale integrated (LSI) and Very Large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits
  • Microprocessors led to the invention of personal computers.

5th Generation (Present & Beyond) : Artificial Intelligence

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerns with making computers behave and think like humans.
  • The branch of computer science that deal with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively
  • AI studies include robotics, expert systems, games, etc..

3 Directions of Computer Development

  •  size
    • Everything has become smaller
  •  power
    • Miniaturization allowed computer makers to cram more power into their machines, providing faster processing speeds and more data storage capacity.
  •  expensive
    • The price of the hardware is getting cheaper

Classification of Computers

(1) Supercomputers

  • The mightiest computer
  • The most expensive.
  • process billions of instructions in a second
  • used by some exclusive group only


  • Process data at very high speed
  • less expensive than Supercomputer
  • used for processing large amount of data
  • user work with terminal e.g Maybank Mainframe


  • Powerful desktop computers
  • Used by engineers and scientists for engineering applications,software development, application that require a high amount of computing power

(4)Mobile Computing

  • Small, portable, wireless communication device.
  • Ex: laptops, wearable computers, PDAs, USB flash drives.


  • designed to support a computer network that allows you to share files, application software, hardware, such as printers and other network resources.
  • Mainframes, personal computers can be used as a server.
  • Server computers usually have following characteristics:
    • Designed to be connected to one or more networks
    • The most powerful CPUs available
    • Multiple CPUs to share the processing tasks
    • Large memory and disk storage
    • High-speed communications capabilities

(6)Microcomputers / PC

  • The most common for home users , computers that can fit on a desktop or in one's briefcase.
  • Can perform all of its input, processing, output and storage activities by itself.

Types of PC

  • Mini – tower
  • Desktop
why are computers so useful
Why are COMPUTERSso Useful?
  • Storage
  • Reliability
  • Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Communication