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Team Work for Patient Safety and Care Michael West Aston Business School Patient Safety Federation Conference 10 th February 2011 The Ark, Basingstoke. Leading culture change for safety. Searching for new ways to meet clients’ needs and ensure quality and safety

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Team Work for Patient Safety and Care Michael West Aston Business School


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    1. Team Work for Patient Safety and Care Michael West Aston Business School Patient Safety Federation Conference 10th February 2011 The Ark, Basingstoke

    2. Leading culture change for safety • Searching for new ways to meet clients’ needs and ensure quality and safety • Leadership is upbeat and self confident. There’s no problem that can’t be solved, no status quo that can’t be bettered • Listening to clients/patients ..... • Leadership is about doing the difficult not managing the inevitable

    3. The HR system variable explains 16.9% of the variance in subsequent mortality (p < .01) Even taking prior mortality into account, the HR systems variable explains a further 7.8% on top of this (p < .01) Results

    4. Implications • > 25% more appraisers trained, associated with a reduction of 12.3% of the number of deaths after hip fracture • > 25% more staff working in teams associated with 275 fewer deaths per 100,000 following emergency surgery or 7.1% of the total number of deaths following emergency surgery • West et al,2001 International Journal of HRM • West, Guthrie, Dawson, 2006 Journal of Organizational Behavior

    5. The Dance of Teams

    6. Employee Involvement Programme* • The extent of team working in hospitals predicts: • job satisfaction • organisational commitment • adherence to organisational • rules and procedures • individual and organisational • innovation • cooperation with co-workers • patient mortality • West et al., 2005. Working together: Staff involvement and Organizational • Performance in the NHS. Final Report

    7. Four conditions for effective teams: • Having a real team -  bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task • Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives • Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers • Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

    8. Real Teams • Having a real team - bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task • Bounded? • Team A CEO: 11; Members 7-84; • Team B CEO 5; Members 5-9. • Only 11/120 agreed on the size of the team • Team size? • Team stability? • Wageman et al, Senior Leadership Teams, Harvard University Press

    9. Working in Teams in the NHS ‘Do you work in a team?’ If yes (91%) … • Does your team have clear objectives? • Do you have to work closely together to achieve these objectives? • Do you meet regularly to review your team effectiveness and how it could be improved? • 38% of 1.4 million employees

    10. Team working in Primary Care

    11. Working in Team and Errors, Stress and Injury(170 acute trusts, 120,000 respondents) www.nhsstaffsurveys.com

    12. Staff absenteeism 5% more staff working in real teams associated with 0.27% in overall absenteeism rate (p < .001) For an “average” acute hospital, this represents a potential estimated saving of over £1 million per year in direct salary alone

    13. Patient mortality 5% more staff working in real teams associated with 3.3% drop in mortality rate (p = .006) For an “average” acute hospital, this represents around 40 deaths per year

    14. Mortality

    15. Failures of team-based working Clear roles Reflexivity Cooperation across teams Team vision & objectives

    16. Four conditions for effective teams: • Having a real team -  bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task • Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives • Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers • Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

    17. ABS Management Team Objectives Increase staff and student satisfaction Improve student staff ratio Improve collaboration with central services and the three other schools and manage university initiatives effectively Balance the budget and ensure strategic investment ambitions are met (4%) Successfully implement DLMBA and associated changes in processes of learning and teaching Ensure improvements in employability of students by building links with employers and student skills Achieve accreditations

    18. Three things we must always do Provide leadership by focusing on what is difficult and important rather than inevitable or unimportant Encourage and reward risk and innovation to create a climate of engagement and excitement Share responsibility for management team decisions and support each other

    19. Three things we must never do Lose sight of our common purpose Intentionally mislead each other or staff Neglect promoting, learning from and supporting the whole organization

    20. Four conditions for effective teams: • Having a real team -  bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task • Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives • Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers • Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

    21. Four conditions for effective teams: • Having a real team -  bounded, stable, interdependent with a real team task • Having a clear team purpose, challenging and consequential with clear objectives • Making the right choices about who should be on the team - skills and roles, enablers not derailers • Developing through regular coaching and self-coaching

    22. Regular honest review and feedback • Developing through regularly taking time out to review performance and how to improve Coaching the team Reflexivity

    23. How to lead dream teams

    24. Team Leadership - Managing • Team members enabled to work interdependently • A high degree of autonomy in achieving objectives • Accurate and timely feedback on team performance • Sufficient forming time to build rapport • Encourage, model and reward positive group attitudes towards diversity

    25. Positivity Opens Us • Barbara Fredrickson www.positiveemotions.org • Positivity ratio > 3:1; Maximum 11>1 Fredrickson & Losada, American Psychologist (2005) 60, 678-686 • (... and negativity is necessary)

    26. Team Leadership - Coaching • Encourage positive, supportive relationships in teams • Resolve and prevent intense conflicts • Inquiry plus advocacy • Ensure regular and positive team meetings • Encourage optimism in teams by modelling

    27. “Where do good new ideas come from? That’s simple! From differences. Creativity comes from unlikely juxtapositions. The best way to maximize differences is to mix ages, cultures and disciplines.”Nicholas Negroponte The Value of Team Diversity

    28. Team Leadership - Leading • Offer an inspiring vision • Ensure that team leadership is clear • Be attentive and listen carefully to the team • Lead inter-team cooperation and effectiveness • Model organisational loyalty

    29. Patient focus Clear aligned goals and objectives at every level Good people management Positive emotional environments and relationships Employee engagement Real team working Values based leadership Where does team working fit in?

    30. LEADERSHIP VALUES - How can you promote these values and virtues in the organization?

    31. The Dance of Teams