mediation and negotiation for cuhk emba 7 july 2012 n.
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Mediation and Negotiation for cuhk emba 7 July 2012. Presented by: Mr. Roy Cheng. Agenda of the Lecture. What is Mediation? The F eatures, Process, Mediator’s Role, and the Merits of Mediation Negotiation in Mediation : Interest-Based Negotiation Mediation Practice-Case Sharing

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agenda of the lecture
Agenda of the Lecture
  • What is Mediation? The Features, Process, Mediator’s Role, and the Merits of Mediation
  • Negotiation in Mediation : Interest-Based Negotiation
  • Mediation Practice-Case Sharing
  • Recent Development of Mediation in Hong Kong
cost implication of court proceedings
Cost Implication of Court Proceedings


  • Management Cost
  • Solicitor Fee
  • Counsel Fee


  • Original Interviews
  • Drafting, Pleadings
  • Collecting Documents
cost implication of court proceedings1
Cost Implication of Court Proceedings

STAGE II: Preparation Stage

  • Witnesses
  • Experts Survey
  • Discovery
  • Interrogatory
  • Motions
  • Pretrial Process
  • Case Review


  • Witness Fee
  • Expert Fee
  • Solicitor Fee
  • Barrister Fee
  • Disbursement
cost implication of court proceedings2
Cost Implication of Court Proceedings

STAGE III: Trial Stage

  • Representation
  • Preparation
  • Trial
  • Court Administration
  • Judgment


  • Barrister Fee
  • Court Fee
  • Claimant Cost
  • Interest

Cost Implication of Litigation

Fortune 1000 Data on a Single Typical Case


In thousand

Stage I

Stage II

Stage III











General & Typical case

Motorola Before ADR System

Motorola After ADR System



[REF: Slaikeu, K.A. & others (1998), Controlling The Costs of Conflict, Jossey Bass Inc. Quoted from Motorola]

originality of mediation
Originality of Mediation
  • High cost of court proceedings
  • Overloading of civil cases
  • Court waiting time for civil case from application to fix date for hearing
    • HK District Court 72 days (2011 figure)
    • HK High Court 231 days (2011 figure)

[SRC: Annual Report 2011, Hong Kong Judiciary]

what s wrong with our internal complaint system
What’s wrong with our internal complaint system?

Sir, I believe you’re eating my bamboo

Too bad for you.



case 1 sexual harassment complaints
Case 1: Sexual harassment complaints
  • One female employee of CUHK was suspected of being sexually harassed by her supervisor, and hence forth suffered from depression, and she ultimately committed suicide.
  • The Coroner’s Court determined the reason for the death to be suicide. The deceased person at that time had submitted a “verbal” complaint to the University, and the University had then arranged a different job position in a different department to protect the female.
  • However, the University did not investigate her supervisor because the deceased person did not submit a “complaint in written format” in accordance with the University procedure, and she also requested the University not to disclose the event.
  • The deceased person had worked in the University for many years and five years in the University’s sexual harassment complaints committee. She should be more familiar with the procedures of handling complaint than many committee members
  • She did not lodge formal complaint, why?
case 2 all lose situation the victim was dissatisfied the accused was not convinced
Case 2: All Lose situation:The victim was dissatisfied ; The accused was not convinced
  • In July 2011, a female employee of CUHK submitted a complaint to the University pointing out that she was sexually harassed by a senior level employee, and hence forth she was mentally stressed, and suffered from depression. After investigation, the University had determinedthat the complaint was valid and decided to issue a warning letter to the senior employee.
  • The victim criticized the punishment for being too light, and there was no support for the victim. The victim appealed to the media.
  • However, the senior employee also announced that he did not accept the University’s judgment as he was treated unjustly. Although he would retire within two months, he still decided to take the initiative to resign in order to protest the University’s conclusion.
case 3 happened in poly university
Case 3: Happened in Poly University
  • The event was about a female student who complained that a male classmate of the same faculty molest her sexually by touching her chest. After the female student submitted a complaint to the University, the case was transferred to the student disciplinary committee of the University for further action.
  • Question: What/How will you do, if you were the disciplinary Chair?
case 3 happened in poly university1
Case 3: Happened in Poly University

The University announced:

  • “We believe that the male student likes the female student all along, but his expression was inappropriate. Moreover, the female student had not been dated before, and may be over reacted. The female student’s action might discourage the male student from getting acquaintance with other girls thereafter.”
  • After the result was made public, there was a dispute inside the University. Students were dissatisfied with the University’s judgment. Students posted Big Character Poster on Democracy Wall inside the University, and doubted that the event was handle without due care and therefore the judgment was inappropriate.
what is mediation
What is Mediation?

A third party facilitated negotiation

meaning of mediation
Meaning of mediation
  • mediation is a structured process comprising one or more sessions in which one or more impartial individuals, without adjudicating a dispute or any aspect of it, assist the parties to the dispute to do any or all of the following---
  • Identify the issues in dispute;
  • Explore and generate options;
  • Communicate with one another;
  • Reach an agreement regarding the resolution of the whole, or part, of the dispute.

Source: Section 4. Mediation Ordinance. Ordinance No. 15 of 2012

the objects of mediation ordinance
The objects of Mediation Ordinance
  • To promote, encourage and facilitate the resolution of disputes by mediation; and
  • To protect the confidential nature of mediation communications
what is mediation1
What is Mediation
  • Negotiation (談判)
  • Problem-solving (解決問題)
  • Neutral Third Party Assistance (中立第三者協助)
  • Facilitative (促進式)
  • Private and Confidential (保密)
  • Voluntary (自願)
  • Objective & Structured Process (客觀)
  • Without Prejudice to Later Litigation (無損訴訟立場)
the merits of mediation
The merits of Mediation

Direct Dialogue

Self Determination

  • Clarifying
  • State position, Express view point, perception
  • Preserve relation
  • Process
  • Content
  • Venue
  • Solutions
communication in mediation
Communication in mediation
  • Private
  • Flexible
  • Voluntary
  • Confidential
  • Without prejudices
  • Persons with Authority : to attend and to enter settlement
  • Influential persons ???
comparison communication in litigation vs mediation
Comparison Communication in Litigation vsMediation







Disputants Hand Off

features of mediation
Features of Mediation


Without prejudices

Structural process



mediation process1
Mediation Process

Mediator’s opening


Parties’ opening statement

Joint discussion for understanding

mediation process2
Mediation process

Caucus for reality test

Negotiation for solutions


features of mediation1
Features of Mediation
  • Using Principled Negotiation approach, (aka) Interest-Based Negotiation (aka) Problem-Solving Negotiation
  • It is a Neutral Third Party assisted Negotiation
  • It is a Private and Confidential process
  • The process is voluntary & non-binding
  • Parties make the decision
  • The contract and agreement entered is binding
  • Objective & Structured Process
  • Information conveyed therein are Without Prejudice to Later Litigation
positional negotiation

Bargain over positions

Argue over one solution

Bottom line preset

Win-Lose outcome

Concessions made

Who’s right or wrong

Need little preparation

Skill requirement: less


Know and Focus only on wants

A Single solution to a problem

Fail to explore options

Confuse wants with needs

Fail to explore real interests

Natural Reactions

Striking back

Giving in


Positional Negotiation
principled negotiation gettting to yes roger fisher william ury 1982
關注式談判 PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATION**Gettting to Yes, Roger Fisher &William Ury, 1982
  • Separate the people from the problem


  • Focus on Interests, not positions


  • Invent options for mutual gain


  • Insist on Objective Criteria


a commercial dispute
A commercial dispute
  • A public relation firm was appointed to organize an international conference for a professional society in Hong Kong
  • The professional society refused to pay the outstanding fees (HK$600,00)
  • The P.R. firm initiated legal proceedings which lasted for two years.
  • Lawyer recommended to resolve the case by mediation in 2005
  • The mediation meeting was scheduled from 2:30p.m. to 7:00p.m.
  • The mediation meeting ended at 4:30 p.m. including the execution of settlement agreement. And no lawyer was presented.

Question: Why a two year legal proceeding can be settled within two hours. The total mediation fee : HK$16,000 to be shared by the parties

separate the people from the problem
Separate the People from the Problem
  • Negotiators are people first
  • Substance interest and relationship interest
  • People’s issues: perception, emotion, communication
a dispute among family members
A dispute among family members
  • During a trip to Yunnan, China. There was a group of three, parents and a college boy.
  • Mom complained that the two guys seldom eat vegetables at home nor refill the rice
  • These two guys voluntary took those vegetables and even to refill rice. They like the food more than at home.
  • Mom wasunhappy and felt no face and wishes you to resolve their conflict.

Question: What will you do?


Wants and Needs

The tip of the iceberg

Atlantic Ocean

near Newfoundland

background of the hung h om peninsula negotiation event
Background of the Hung Hom Peninsula Negotiation Event
  • 1999: The Lands Department announced that it would cooperate with private developer WaiKee Holdings Ltd to develop the reclamation land in Hunghom Bay in order for this developer to participate in building Home Ownership Scheme Flats. The auction price was 0. 583 billion. Then, NWS Holdings Ltd under New World Development Co. Ltd. announced that it bought shares of WaiKee Holdings Ltd.
  • 2003: Because of SARS and economic downturn, Michael Suen Ming Yeung, the then director of Housing, Planning and Lands Bureau announced that the government would stop selling the home ownership scheme (HOS) flats indefinitely, and at the same time, would stop building HOS flats, and also the government would terminate the plan for private developers to participate in building HOS flats.
  • 2004: The government began to negotiate with the developer, and suggested that all the flats could be transferred to private developers for land premium payment. This negotiation outcome was concluded during a mediation meeting.
  • 2008: The related official joined New World immediately after he retired. Citizens and councilors thought that the official was paving the way for his retirement, and hence sold the government land cheaply.
  • 2009/ 6/ 11, That official disclosed the negotiation process when he appeared at a hearing in related to that land selling event in the Legco.
hung hum peninsula negotiation process
Hung Hum PeninsulaNegotiation Process

Gov’t valuation

First offer

Market weakening

No Alternative


Discount and

final offer



Internal bottom line



Adjourn negotiation



Final offer

Stay firm



Responsive offer


Status quo

Counter offer


New World

First offer


Deal at $0.86B

mediation practice case sharing
Mediation Practice-Case Sharing

Dickson construction incident

dickson construction incident
Dickson construction incident
  • Dickson (D) was the main contractor whilst HK Housing Authority (HKA) was the developer.
  • Three public housing projects were undergoing, two in Fanling and one in Aberdeen.
  • HKA has confidence that D could not complete these projects due to D’s financial problem. Most of the sub-contractors did not get full payment for the work done.
  • Soon or later HKA has to encounter the crisis when these projects fallen out.
  • Projects in Fanling was just completed foundation work whilst the project in Aberdeen was up to roofing.
  • On 16th February 2006, HKA announced to take over the construction sites at 10:00 a.m. 17th 2006. This was the first time happened to HKA in Hong Kong.
  • More than 40 sub-contractors had a meeting with the HKA deputy directors to plead HKA not to take over the sites. They hoped D’s financial condition would turn around later.
  • The meeting lasted from 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. and no progress. The Deputy Director called for your help. What and how will you do?
dickson construction incident1
Dickson construction incident
  • Gather information, understand what happen. What are the impacts? How will the action Yes-No affected each other?
  • Identify people’s issue fromsubstance issue
  • Identify their common interests
  • Setting a neutral and mutual issue statement which has addressed the concerns of both sides
  • Shift the parties from “I against You” to “We against the Problem”
a story about a car park space dispute
A story about a car park space dispute
  • A group of unit owners versus a developer who also owns a substantial units in the building
  • One of the disputes is about the ground floor units including the “approved” allocation of car park locations.
  • The unit owners alleged that the developer had wrongfully “sold” the car parks as they are not in line with the plan of Lands Department.
  • During the mediation, it was found out that there is ONE unit owner that if the unit owners win the case, that Unit Owner ‘s car park space should revert back to common area.
  • The car transaction was completed more than 20 years ago, that Unit Owner can sue the then lawyer for professional negligence.
  • All people in the meeting room caught by surprised, but they still pursue for legal action.

Question: Why did the Unit Owner agree to continue the legal action rather than work out solution?

executive misconceptions about mediation
Executive misconceptions about mediation
  • Busy to make revenue, no time to save profit
  • Trial lawyer ≠ Mediation lawyer
  • Adverse vs. Problem solving
  • Hand offon the case
  • Genuine on legal cost, conscious on mediation fee
  • Scramble preparation
executive s do
Executive’s Do
  • Identify an appropriate legal representative
  • Express your business/personal interest
  • Participate to appoint a competent mediator
  • Spend time to save time
  • Prepare the case, before and during mediation
  • Know your Alternatives (BATNA) if the mediation end with no solution
recent development of mediation in hk
Recent Development of Mediation in HK
  • Financial Dispute Resolution Centre (19/6/2012)
  • Mediation Bill (15/6/2012)
  • Family Court Practice Direction, PRACTICE DIRECTION - 15.10 (2/5/2012)
  • Mediation for Compulsory Sale Cases Under the Land (Compulsory Sale for Redevelopment) Ordinance (Cap. 545) (15/2/2012)
  • PRACTICE DIRECTION 3.1 (1/1/2010)
  • PRACTICE DIRECTION 3.3 Voluntary Mediation in Petitions Presented under Sections 168A and 177(1)(f) of the Companies Ordinance, Cap. 32 (1/1/2012)
  • PRACTICE DIRECTION Construction and Arbitration List in High Court – Sep 2006
  • CE Policy Address para 85 for 2007/08
  • HKMC established in 1994
  • Airport Core Project in 1992