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J.Padmavathi. MODEM. Origin of Modems. The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator A modem is typically used to send digital data over a phone line. sending modem. Receiving modem. wireless modems.

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origin of modems
Origin of Modems
  • The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator
  • A modem is typically used to send digital data over a phone line.

sending modem

Receiving modem

wireless modems

slide4
The receiving modem demodulates the signal back into digital data
  • Wireless modems convert digital data into radio signals and back.
modem definition
MODEM Definition
  • modem - A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device.
what is modem
What is MODEM
  • Short for modulator-demodulator
definition
Definition
  • A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines
  • Computer information is storeddigitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms.
  • DEF:
types of modem
Types of modem
  • External
  • Internal
slide9
(cont…)
  • Fortunately, there is one standardinterface for connecting external modems to computers called RS-232
  • Consequently, any external modem can be attached to any computer that has an RS-232 port, which almost all personal computers have. There are also modems that come as an expansion board that you can insert into a vacant expansion slot. These are sometimes called onboard or internal modems.
slide10
(cont..)
  • While the modem interfaces are standardized, a number of different protocols for formatting data to be transmitted over telephone lines exist
characteristics distinguish one modem from another
characteristics distinguish one modem from another:
  • Bps
  • voice/data
  • auto-answer
  • Data compression
  • Flash Memory
  • Flash capability
characteristics distinguish one modem from another1
characteristics distinguish one modem from another:

1.bps:How fast the modem can transmit and receive data

  • At slow rates, modems are measured in terms of baud rates
  • The slowest rate is 300 baud (about 25 cps).
  • At higher speeds, modems are measured in terms of bits per second (bps)
slide13
(cont..)
  • The fastest modems run at 57,600 bps, although they can achieve even higher data transfer rates by compressing the data
  • Obviously, the faster the transmission rate, the faster you can send and receive data
  • cannot receive data any faster than it is being sent
slide14
(cont…)
  • If, for example, the device sending data to your computer is sending it at 2,400 bps, you must receive it at 2,400 bps.

2.voice/data :Many modems support a switch to change between voice and data modes.

3.auto-answer:An auto-answer modem enables your computer to receive calls in your absence

slide15
(cont..)
  • Data compression:Some modems perform data compression, which enables them to send data at faster rates
  • the modem at the receiving end must be able to decompress the data using the same compression technique.
slide16
(cont…)
  • Flash Memory:Some modems come with flash memory rather than conventional ROM, which means that the communications protocols can be easily updated if necessary
  • Flash capability:Most modern modems are fax modems, which means that they can send and receive faxes.
dump terminal
Dump Terminal
  • A dumb terminal is simply a keyboard and a screen
  • A very common dumb terminal at the time was called the DEC VT-100, and it became a standard of the day
  • The VT-100 could display 25 lines of 80 characters each
operation
Operation
  • When the user typed a character on the terminal, the modem sent the ASCII code for the character to the computer. The computer then sent the character back to the computer so it would appear on the screen.
300 kbps modems
300 kbps Modems
  • 300-bps Modems
  • We'll use 300-bps modems as a starting point because they are extremely easy to understand. A 300-bps modem is a device that uses frequency shift keying (FSK) to transmit digital information over a telephone line. In frequency shift keying, a different tone (frequency) is used for the different bits (see How Guitars Work for a discussion of tones and frequencies).
slide21
Full Duplex Modem
  • Half Duplex Modem
faster modems
Faster MODEMS
  • Faster Modems
  • In order to create faster modems, modem designers had to use techniques far more sophisticated than frequency-shift keying. First they moved to phase-shift keying (PSK), and then quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM).
slide23
(cont…)
  • These techniques allow an incredible amount of information to be crammed into the 3,000 hertz of bandwidth available on a normal voice-grade phone line. 56K modems, which actually connect at something like 48 Kbps on anything but absolutely perfect lines, are about the limit of these techniques (see the links at the end of this article for more information). Here's a look inside a typical 56K modem:
slide26
All of these high-speed modems incorporate a concept of gradual degradation, meaning they can test the phone line and fall back to slower speeds if the line cannot handle the modem's fastest speed.
slide27
The next step in the evolution of the modem was asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) modems.
  • The word asymmetric is used because these modems send data faster in one direction than they do in another.
  • (Eg) dedicated copper wire running between home and phone company's nearest mux or central office.
slide28
This dedicated copper wire can carry far more data than the 3,000-hertz signal needed for your phone's voice channel. If both the phone company's central office and your house are equipped with an ADSL modem on your line, then the section of copper wire between your house and the phone company can act as a purely digital high-speed transmission channel.
slide29
The capacity is something like 1 million bits per second (Mbps) between the home and the phone company (upstream) and 8 Mbps between the phone company and the home (downstream) under ideal conditions. The same line can transmit both a phone conversation and the digital data.
slide30
The approach an ADSL modem takes is very simple in principle. The phone line's bandwidth between 24,000 hertz and 1,100,000 hertz is divided into 4,000-hertz bands, and a virtual modem is assigned to each band. Each of these 249 virtual modems tests its band and does the best it can with the slice of bandwidth it is allocated. The aggregate of the 249 virtual modems is the total speed of the pipe.
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