hormone therapy for menopause current data
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Hormone Therapy for Menopause: Current Data

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

Hormone Therapy for Menopause: Current Data - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Hormone Therapy for Menopause: Current Data. Jan Shepherd, MD, FACOG. Objectives. Discuss data on the risks and benefits of HT generated since the initial publication from the Women’s Health Initiative.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Hormone Therapy for Menopause: Current Data' - alicia

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
  • Discuss data on the risks and benefits of HT generated since the initial publication from the Women’s Health Initiative.
  • Discuss current evidence regarding the effect of HT on cardiovascular and breast cancer risk.
  • Apply current evidence regarding HT to clinical practice.
  • A 52 year-old Caucasian female g2p2, LMP 6 months ago, presents with significant hot flashes interfering with her daily activities and sleep. She has read that HT can cause breast cancer and heart attacks. What is your initial advice?
hormone therapy ht or mht
Hormone Therapy (HT or MHT)
  • Combination Therapy (EPT, was HRT) – replacing estrogen and progesterone
    • Progesterone necessary to protect uterus
  • Estrogen Therapy (ET, was ERT) –

replacing estrogen alone

    • Used in women who have had a hysterectomy
  • Until 2002, thought to be almost always beneficial
symptoms of the climacteric
Symptoms of the Climacteric
  • Menstrual Changes
  • Vaginal Dryness and Genital Tract Atrophy
  • Hot Flashes
  • Sleep Disturbances
  • Mood Changes
  • Cognitive Changes
  • Other
sequelae of the menopause
Sequelae of the Menopause
  • Heart disease
  • Women relatively protected until menopause
    • Adverse lipid changes
    • Vascular effects
  • Symptoms can interfere with women functioning to their full physical and mental abilities
  • Health risks
    • An important time of life for health interventions
  • Can replacing estrogen address both of these issues?
the women s health initiative
The Women’s Health Initiative
  • Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Premarin and Provera (Prempro)
  • Enrolled 16,600 postmenopausal women at 40 sites in the US
  • Halted after 5.2 years because breast cancer risk reached a predetermined threshold
results of whi
Results of WHI

Incidents per 10,000 women/year

JAMA 2002;288:321

annual prescriptions 1995 2003
Annual Prescriptions:1995-2003

JAMA 2004; 291:47-53.

questions raised about whi
Questions Raised about WHI
  • Average age 63 (only 3.4% were 50-55), asymptomatic patients – does this data apply to newly menopausal women?
  • One-size-fits-all approach – does this data apply to all forms and doses of HT?
  • Only E+P studied - does progestin play a role in risk?
whi premarin only arm 10 739 women post hysterectomy
WHI Premarin-Only Arm(10,739 women post hysterectomy)

Incidents per 10,000 women/year

JAMA 2004;291:1701

what do we think we learned

Venous thrombosis



(combined therapy)

↑ Breast cancer

(combined therapy)


Symptom relief

Sexual function

Osteoporosis and fracture prevention

↓ Colon cancer

(combined therapy)

What do we think we learned?
newer data

Newer Data


Heart Disease


Breast Cancer

reduced onset type 2 diabetes
Reduced Onset Type 2 Diabetes

Etiology uncertain

May  insulin sensitivity

May be secondary to  centripetal weight gain

1. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:1-19. 2. Diabetalogia 2004;47:1175-87. 3. Diabetalogia 2006;49:459-68.

effects of estrogen on vasculature
Effects of Estrogen on Vasculature
  • Direct
    • Binds to endothelial β2-adrenergic receptors

→ NO release → Vasodilation

    •  Platelet aggregation,  thromboxane
  • Biochemical
    • ↑ HDL-C, ↓ LDL, ↑ triglycerides (oral)
    • ↑ C-reactive protein (oral only)

Circulation 2002;106:913

thrombogenic effects of estrogen
Thrombogenic Effects of Estrogen
  • First-pass effects
    • ↑ Factors VII and X, APC resistance
    • ↓ Antithrombin, Proteins C and S
  • Explains increased DVT/VTE
  • Some oral estrogens may be more thrombogenic than others1
  • No increase in DVT/VTE shown with transdermal preparations2,3

1. JAMA 2004;292:1581 2. Lancet 2003;362:428 3. Circulation 2007;115:840

potential effects of progestin
Potential Effects of Progestin
  • Can reverse estrogen’s positive effect on lipid profile
  • May block estrogen’s positive effect on vasculature
ht and atherosclerosis in monkeys
HT and Atherosclerosis in Monkeys

J Cinical Endocrin Metab;2001;86:5396

further analysis of whi both arms combined
Further Analysis of WHI(Both arms combined)
  • For women < 10 years since menopause,  CHD risk (RR .76, 95% CI 0.50-1.16)
  • For women < age 60,

 mortality risk (RR .70, 95% CI 0.51-0.96)

JAMA 2007;297:1465-1477.

evidence suggests
Evidence Suggests:
  • Estrogen may have a negative effect on damaged endothelium
  • A positive effect of estrogen, if it occurs, requires a healthy endothelium
  • HT and risk of CHD
    • May ↑ risk when started postmenopausally
    • May ↓ risk when begun at menopause
new data on stroke risk
New Data on Stroke Risk
  • Population-based case control study from UK Database (15,710 cases of stroke matched to 59,958 controls)

BMJ 2010;340:c2519.

effects of e and p on the breast
Effects of E and P on the Breast
  • Persistent high endogenous estrogen is known to be associated with breast cancer
  • Mitotic activity in the breast peaks during the luteal phase (progesterone-dominant)
ht and risk of breast cancer
HT and Risk of Breast Cancer
  • Observational studies
    • Average RR 1.35
    • ↑ Risk with ↑ duration of therapy
    • Little or no risk with estrogen alone
  • WHI
    • RR 1.24 (CI 1.00 – 1.59)
    • No risk with estrogen alone
seer data

N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1670-1674.

newer data from whi
Newer Data from WHI

New Engl J Med 2009;360:573-587.

evidence suggests1
Evidence Suggests:
  • There is a small increased risk of breast cancer with combination HT, which likely increases with increased duration of use
  • E alone may have less impact
  • HT may potentiate tumors that are already present
  • Withdrawal of HT may lead to regression of preclinical cancers
relative risk of breast cancer
Relative Risk of Breast Cancer

Relative risk of breast cancer

BRCA1-2 mutation

Early menarche

Late age at birth of 1st child

Benign breast disease

Hormone replacement therapy

Alcohol use

Family history

what do we think we know about ht

Venous thrombosis (oral)


CAD (combined therapy, older women)

Breast cancer

(esp. combined therapy, prolonged use)


Symptom relief

Sexual function

Osteoporosis prevention

↓ Diabetes

May ↓ CAD (younger women)

May  mortality

(if begun before age 60)

What do we think we know about HT?
2010 nams statement
2010 NAMS Statement
  • Treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms remains the primary indication for HT
  • When vulvovaginal atrophy is the sole indication, first-line therapy should be topical
  • Oral HT increases the risk of VTE, particularly in the first 1-2 years and in women over age 60
  • Data show a reduction in CHD with HT initiated within 10 years of menopause and an increase after 10 years
  • ET/HT in early menopause for primary prevention of CHD needs further evaluation; HT should not be used for secondary prevention of CHD

Menopause 2010;17(2):242-255.

2010 nams statement1
2010 NAMS Statement
  • Initiating HT after age 65 for prevention of dementia is not recommended; data for early menopause insufficient
  • Both ET and HT may increase risk of stroke
  • Both ET and HT appear to reduce diabetes risk
  • Breast cancer risk is slightly increased with HT use beyond 5 years (4-6/10,000 women)
    • There is no difference in mortality from breast cancer between HT users and nonusers
    • Estrogen alone may have less impact
  • There is definitive evidence that HT and ET reduce osteoporosis risk, and both may still be considered for women at high fracture risk
2010 nams statement2
2010 NAMS Statement
  • Use the lowest effective dose consistent with treatment goals, benefits, and risks
  • Extended use is acceptable if informed patient believes benefits outweigh risks
  • Specific regimens and forms of administration may have different outcomes, but evidence is insufficient
  • There is inadequate evidence on endometrial safety to recommend alternatives to standard EPT regimens
  • Compounded “bioidentical” hormones should be used with caution


how well do women understand the research on ht
How well do women understand the research on HT?
  • Women aged 45-65 - UF Women’s Clinics
  • Dramatically overestimated the risks of HT
    • 1/3 believed HT increases risk of CHD 10-30%
    • 1/2 believed HT increases risk of breast cancer 10-30%

Actual increases were .07% & .08%,respectively

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:641-7.

what can we tell our patients
What can we tell our patients?
  • Clarify misconceptions resulting from media coverage
  • Help each woman understand the risks and benefits for her individual situation