Agriculture in Developed Countries • Mixed crop and livestock farming • Dairy farming • Grain farming • Livestock ranching • Mediterranean agriculture • Commercial gardening and fruit farming • Access to markets
Mixed Crop and Livestock • All land used to grow crops but ¾ of the income comes from the sale of animal products • Crop rotation • two-field- crop grown in one field while the other is left fallow • four-field- root crop in field A, cereal in field B, “rest” crop in field C, root crop in field D
MDC Agriculture • Mixed Crop & Livestock most common west of the Appalachians, east of 98 degree long., much of Europe from France to Russia • Integration of crops and livestock • Most crops fed to animals • Manure improves soil • 3/4ths of income from sale of animal products
Dairy Farming • Milkshed- the surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling • Regions specialize in “milk products” because of the distance from the markets • Problems: declining revenues, rising costs, and feeding cows in the winter
World Milk Production, 2005 Fig 10-8: Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment. It is usually high in MDCs, especially production per capita, and varies considerably in LDCs.
Dairy Farming • Near large urban areas • Increasing in LDCs • India: largest milk producer (US-2nd) • Increased distance 30 miles 300 miles • Milk or Cheese • Farther from urban areas: cheese • East: Milk, Farther West: cheese • New Zealand: Cheese
Milk Production in MDCs & LDCs1960-2005 Milk production has grown more rapidly in LDCs than in MDCs since the 1960s.
Dairy Farming • US decreasing dairy farms • 1980-2000: 2/3 less farms • Production of milk has increased
Grain Farming • “commercial grain farming” is primarily for consumption by humans • Three regions of grain production • Winter-Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma • Spring- Dakotas, and Montana • Palouse- Washington
Grain Farming • Grain: seed from grasses: wheat, corn, cereals, snacks • Winter Wheat: planted in Autumn, harvested in summer • Spring Wheat: planted in spring, harvested in late summer
World Corn Production, 2005 Fig. 10-7: The U.S. accounts for about 40% of world corn (maize) production. China is the 2nd largest producer. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.
World Wheat Production, 2005 Fig. 10-10: China is the world’s leading wheat producer, but the U.S. is the largest producer of wheat for sale and the largest exporter.
Grain Farming • Wheat = bread flour • Sold at higher price than others • More uses • Doesn’t spoil • North American prairies “bread basket” • US: largest commercial producer
U.S. Wheat Farmer A U.S. wheat farmer in Idaho is selling wheat to Asian buyers.
Grain Farming • Farmers can often work on both farms. • Move machinery/labor based on season
Livestock Ranching • Open range vs fixed location • Longhorns or herefords
Livestock Ranching • Cattle prices: $3-4 in Texas • $30-40 in Chicago • Transport cattle to market
The Chisholm Trail Fig. 10-11: The Chisholm Trail became famous as the main route for cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas.
Livestock Ranching • Cattle ranching declined bc conflict with Sedentary agriculture • “Code of the West”: cattle could graze on open land • US sold “grazing land” • Longhorns: poor quality, but durable • Hereford: superior meat, not good for travel
Meat Production on Ranches Fig 10-12: Cattle, sheep and goats are the main meat animals raised on ranches.
Livestock Ranching • Argentina: cattle-access to ocean, easily transported to overseas markets • Australia: sheep, open grazing • Shift in ranching world-wide • Open ranges fixed farming
Mediterranean Agriculture • Most crops in Mediterranean lands are grown for human consumption rather than for animal feed. • Horticulture- the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers • Two most important cash crops are olives and grapes
Mediterranean Agriculture • Mediterranean: borders sea • Hilly, mountains • 2/3 of wine production • Olives, grapes • Half of land devoted to wheat: pasta, bread
Mediterranean Agriculture • California, N.Africa, Chile, S.Africa • California: losing land to development
Vineyard in Portugal Grapes loaded in vineyards on slopes above the Douro River in northern Portugal.
Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming • US Southeast: long growing season, humid climate • Truck Farming: Jolly Green Giant • Produce fruits/vegetables for processing (canning, freezing)
Von Thunen Model • Model describes what each zone should be used for in order to increase profits