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Two guerrilla groups (the ELN & FARC), and drug cartels have been pitted against government forces for 50 years. International peace agreements have been unsuccessful. President Uribe’s government has been criticized for insufficient attention to victim’s rights to justice, truth, and reparation. Violence has decreased, but Venezuelan president ___Hugo Chavez_________has threatened to send troops to “stabilize” his neighbor. Drug trafficking is the main source of income and a major problem for the Colombian government.
Peru’s government has been challenged by many guerilla groups. The two most active and violent are Tupac Amaru and __Shining Path______ (Sendoro Luminosa). These two groups are ruthless and control many areas outside the large cities. The average people of Peru are very poor; however there are some rich people who are descendants of foreigners. In 1980, President Fujimori began ruling by ___decree_____________. He began paramilitary forces to supplement the army. Many people “disappeared” and forces took part in murder, torture, and kidnappings. Serious corruption charges forced Fujimori to resign. The following administrations have opened up trade with the west and regional neighbors which has somewhat improved lives of the average person. The government has also actively sought to end the conflicts by ____force____________.
Large sections of central and ____eastern_______ India have been controlled by Maoist ____communists_______. The government has called them the “single biggest internal security challenge faced by our country.” Many of the poor support the Maoists for promises of land rights and more job opportunities. The Maoists are well trained and leaders are ex-military. Over ___6,000__________people have died in the last 10 years. The government has started a program to flush out the Maoists, but the Maoists have retaliated and violence is escalating.
Jammu & Kashmir:
The area of Kashmir & Jammu is ___65%___________ administered by India and ____35%________________ by Pakistan. The state is predominately Muslim. Both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and tensions are high between the two nations. The area of Kashmir also has a large population of Sikhs that wish for independence. These areas are also close to Afghanistan’s badlands where ___al-Qaeda______operatives train and Osama bin Laden is thought to be hiding. Mujahadeen fighters have been known to train in Kashmir. Taliban (Islamic fundamentalists) active in Afghanistan would like to spread their influence into this area. India has cracked down on the insurgency that is backed by ___Pakistan___.
Also known as Irian Jaya, Papua, was told by the ____Dutch_________ that they could have independence when they left the colony. The following year, Indonesia claimed the area. The Free-Papua movement has been fighting a secessionist battle ever since. Indonesia has stationed a large military presence in order to quell violence. The local people are mainly ____Christian________ and Animists and have been in conflict with the Indonesian ___Muslim_________ government. In 2001, Indonesia tried to appease Papua by allowing them to keep more of the profits from its sale of minerals and agricultural products, but the conflict still remains.
The Kurdish people were promised independence, but when Ataturk formed ___Turkey____________, he swallowed up the area. _27 million_Kurds do not have a homeland. The region is located between Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. The location of this area has been an issue during the Iraqi war as it has been caught in the middle. The Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK) demonstrates in cities, sometimes setting themselves on fire to show commitment to independence. Turkey has consistently repressed this area. The PKK and other Kurdish groups have been outlawed in Turkey and ____Iraq_____. Violence is on the rise as this area is unstable.
Widespread poverty, uneven distribution of scarce resources, a heavily _armed_ civilian population, the presence of al-Qaeda operatives, and an on-going separatist movement in the south has caused serious problems for Yemen’s weak government. The government has gone after __al-Qaeda__, but fighting between Sunni and Shiite Muslims has displaced thousands. The government has arrested thousands and contributed to hostilities. Half of all of Yemen’s people are under that age of __15_____and live on less than _$1_ a day. Islamic militants promise a better life. Training camps aid Somali and Afghan rebels.
Chechnya is part of ____Russia_______ located in the Caucasus region between the Caspian and Black Seas. Chechens have been fighting for independence since the break-up of the USSR in 1989. This area has vast petroleum pipelines from the _Caspian Sea___oilfields. In 1991, Chechnya elected its own president, but Russia imposed an economic blockade against the breakaway republic. In 1994, Russia sent troops into Chechnya. The Chechens saw this as an invasion. The Russian army destroyed cities and the average person was unable to meet basic needs. Chechnya never surrendered, but Russian troops withdrew in 1995. In 2001, Russian President Putin named Chechen rebels as “Islamic Terrorists” and went after them as part of the worldwide __War on Terror___. Fighting has continued and the poor people of Chechnya have been brutalized by all sides.
The rebel group, FLEC (the Front for the Liberation of the State of Cabinda) wants independence from ___Angola____. This group has been actively pressuring Angola to give up the enclave that is separated from the rest of Angola by part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The FLEC has claimed responsibility for deadly attack on Togolese football team’s bus. As the majority of ______oil_________from Angola comes from the area of Cabinda it is unlikely that the government will grant this area independence, and FLEC swears it will continue its insurgency until they meet their goal.
Tibet was an ancient country the size of Western Europe when it was invaded by the People’s Republic of ___China____________ in 1950. Tibet has a unique culture, history, and identity. Not only have many Tibetans lost their lives, but Tibetans in Tibet do not enjoy basic human rights. The Chinese government has introduced policies by which Tibetan culture, language, and natural resources are being systematically eroded. The spiritual and cultural leader of the Tibetan people is the ____Dalai Lama____________He escaped Tibet, and has traveled the world to raise support for an independent Tibet. The Dalai Lama is pursuing peaceful solutions to this situation, but the Chinese government refuses to discuss Tibet.
* China has the Panchen Lama (2nd most important person in Tibetan Buddhism) in “Protective custody” by China, and has not been seen since 1990.
In the last 25 years, more than ___150,000____people have died in the country’s civil war. Although this conflict officially ended last year, a lasting peace is yet to be seen. The minority Hindu nationalist group, the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam) has used suicide bombings and child soldiers to fight against the ____Buddhist___ Sinhalese government. Grave human rights violations were committed by both sides. Heavy fighting in 2009 claimed the life of the LTTE leader and ____7,500__________civilians. The government has claimed victory and is now starting the long process of rebuilding.
Cyprus is a small Mediterranean island nation that has been the site of a __civil war________since its independence. ____20%___of the population are Turks and live in the north. The other ___80%_ are Greek and live in the south. The two groups have historically not gotten along. The country is split into two sectors with UN forces supervising the area in between. Cyprus was admitted into the European Union, but Turkey has not been allowed. The northern sector has not met the economic boom of the southern sector, and has lead to even more tensions. Skirmishes along the __UN__buffer zone are common.
Islamic insurgents have attacked __police______ and military. Government has retaliated in order to try and hold onto power. The west has tried to help the government in order to keep the Islamic fundamentalists out of power and to keep access to Algeria’s vast __oil___and natural gas reserves. Iran and Sudan help fund the fundamentalists. Al-Qaeda has been threatening the government that they see as weak. There is a chance that the government could lose as many as half of the seats in congress to Islamic groups in an open election.
In 2006, a cease-fire was signed to end the conflict between the government and the Lord’s Resistance Army, headed by Joseph ____Kony_________ The conflict began in 1987 when Kony almost wiped out the Acholi people. Kony is wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against ___humanity_______ for his use of child soldiers and his brutality. The international group __Invisible Children____ has worked to help rebuild this nation and return people to their homes.
North Korea’s desire to acquire or produce nuclear weapons has caused tensions with its neighbors and the US. At the end of the _Korean War__the peninsula was divided at the 38th parallel. South Korea became an economic power house and an ally of the __US__ North Korea is a communist dictatorship where Kim Jong Il pays little attention to his citizens as he pursues domination. The demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a no-man’s land between North and South Korea is patrolled by the __UN___. Anyone caught trying to escape to China is imprisoned, but thousands have tried. The average person in North Korea is very poor, and lives on less than __60¢____ a day.
__Morocco__________ annexed Western Sahara in 1979. UN peace keepers have been deployed since 1991 when a cease-fire was signed. In 2007, both parties presented vastly different plans to the UN. Western Sahara’s plan calls for complete independence from Morocco. Morocco’s plan suggests ___statehood___ The lack of support for Western Sahara has angered the independence movement and they have vowed to step up pressure on Morocco. Although Algeria has no official claim to Western Sahara, Algeria has been training the separatists. The __African Union__ recognized Western Sahara as an independent nation, and Morocco pulled out of the organization.