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. Modern Management 9 th edition. Ü Objectives. A basic understanding of human motivation Insights into various human needs An appreciation for the importance of motivating organization members An understanding of various motivation strategies. T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS.

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slide1

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Modern Management9th edition

objectives

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Ü Objectives
  • A basic understanding of human motivation
  • Insights into various human needs
  • An appreciation for the importance of motivating organization members
  • An understanding of various motivation strategies
t he m otivation p rocess

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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  • Defining Motivation
  • Process Theories of Motivation
    • The Needs-Goal Theory of Motivation
      • The Role of Individual Needs
    • The Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation
      • Motivation and Perceptions
t he m otivation p rocess1

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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The needs-goal theory of motivation

Figure 16.1

t he m otivation p rocess2

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation in equation form

Figure 16.2

t he m otivation p rocess3

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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  • Process Theories of Motivation (con’t)
    • Equity Theory of Motivation
      • Adams found these reactions to right an inequity:
      • 1. Change work inputs
        • 2. Change compensation
        • 3. Change perception of inequality
        • 4. Quit job
      • Perceptions of inequities can arise in:
      • Work assignments
        • Promotions
        • Ratings reports
        • Office assignments
        • Pay (most often)
t he m otivation p rocess4

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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  • Process Theories of Motivation (con’t)
  • The Porter-Lawler Theory of Motivation
  • Consistent with Needs-Goal and Vroom Expectancy theories
    • but provides a more complete description
  • The Motivation Process
  • In addition Porter-Lawler stresses:
  • 1. Perceived value determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
    • 2. Task accomplishment determined by:
    • •Perception of requirements to perform task
    • •Ability to perform task
    • 3. Perceived fairness influences amount of satisfaction
t he m otivation p rocess5

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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The Porter-Lawler theory of motivation

Figure 16.3

t he m otivation p rocess6

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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  • Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological
      • Security or safety
      • Social
      • Esteem
      • Self-actualization
    • Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    • 1. Existence
      • 2. Relatedness
      • 3. Growth
t he m otivation p rocess7

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Figure 16.4

t he m otivation p rocess8

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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  • Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs (con’t)
  • Argyris’ Maturity-Immaturity Continuum
  • From infant’sTo adult’s
    • 1. State of passivity State of increasing activity
  • 2. State of dependence on others State of relative independence
  • 3. Being capable of behaving Being capable of behaving
    • only in a few ways in many different ways
  • 4. Having erratic, casual, shallow, Having deeper, more lasting interests
    • and quickly dropped interests
  • 5. Having a short time perspective Having much longer time perspective
  • 6. Being in a subordinate position Aspiring to occupy equal / superordinate
  • 7. Lack of self-awareness Awareness and control over self
t he m otivation p rocess9

THE MOTIVATION PROCESS

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  • Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs (con’t)
    • McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
    • Need for Achievement (nAch)
      • Need for Power (nPower)
      • Need for Affiliation (nAff)
m otivating o rganization m embers

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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  • The Importance of Motivating Organization Members
  • Strategies for Motivating Organization Members
    • Managerial Communication
    • Theory X–Theory Y
m otivating o rganization m embers1

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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Unsatisfied needs of organization members resulting in

either appropriate or inappropriate behavior

Figure 16.5

m otivating o rganization m embers2

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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  • Strategies for Motivating
    • Organization Members (con’t)
  • Job Design
  • Earlier Job Design Strategies
    • Job Rotation
    • Job Enlargement
  • Job Enrichment
    • Hygiene
    • Motivating
    • Job Enrichment and Productivity
  • Flextime
    • Advantages of Flextime
m otivating o rganization m embers3

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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Herzberg’s Hygiene Factors and Motivators

Table 16.1

Dissatisfaction: Satisfaction:

Hygiene or Maintenance Factors Motivating Factors

1. Company policy and administration 1. Opportunity for achievement

2. Supervision 2. Opportunity for recognition

3. Relationship with supervisor 3. Work itself

4. Relationship with peers 4. Responsibility

5. Working conditions 5. Advancement

6. Salary 6. Personal growth

7. Relationship with subordinates

m otivating o rganization m embers4

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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Needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that

desirable hygiene and motivating factors generally satisfy

Figure 16.6

m otivating o rganization m embers5

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Flextime Programs

Table 16.2

Advantages

Improved employee attitude and morale

Accommodation of working parents

Decreased tardiness

Fewer commuting problems—workers can avoid congested streets and highways

Accommodation of those who wish to arrive at work before normal workday interruptions begin

Increased production

Facilitation of employees scheduling of medical, dental, and other types of appointments

Accommodation of leisure-time activities of employees

Decreased absenteeism

Decreased turnover

Disadvantages

Lack of supervision during some hours of work

Key people unavailable at certain times

Understaffing at times

Problem of accommodating employees whose output is the input for other employees

Employee abuse of flextime program

Difficulty in planning work schedules

Problem of keeping track of hours worked or accumulated

Inability to schedule meetings at convenient times

Inability to coordinate projects

m otivating o rganization m embers6

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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  • Strategies for Motivating
    • Organization Members (con’t)
  • Behavior Modification
  • Reinforcement
    • Positive
    • Negative
  • Punishment
  • Applying Behavior Modification
  • Feedback system
  • Other successful behavior modifications are:
  • 1. Giving different rewards according to performance
    • 2. Telling workers what they are doing wrong
    • 3. Punishing workers privately
    • 4. Always giving out earned rewards and punishments
m otivating o rganization m embers7

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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  • Strategies for Motivating
    • Organization Members (con’t)
  • Likert’s Management Systems
  • System 1—Lack of confidence or trust in subordinates
    • System 2—Condescending master-to servant style confidence and trust
    • System 3—Substantial confidence
    • System 4—Complete trust and confidence
  • Styles, Systems, and Productivity
  • Monetary Incentives
  • Nonmonetary Incentives
m otivating o rganization m embers8

MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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Comparative long-term and short-term effects of

system 1 and system 4 on organizational production

Figure 16.7

slide22

Chapter Sixteen

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Questions